Hepatorenal Syndrome Type 1

Hepatorenal Syndrome Type 1

Hepatorenal Syndrome Type 1 (HRS-1) is an acute kidney failure disorder usually found in individuals suffering from a severe form of cirrhosis of the liver. It is characterized by a dramatic decrease in creatinine and urine output, leading to a very rapid and sometimes irreversible decline of kidney function, and death within a short amount of time. This condition is more common in people with cirrhosis, however, may also occur in those without cirrhosis, such as those with brief episodes of alcohol abuse or sudden exhaustion.


HRS-1 is caused by a lack of blood circulation and decreased blood pressure in the kidneys. The reduced blood pressure is due to changes in the blood vessels surrounding the kidneys, as well as decreased production of the hormone angiotensin II. This hormone is essential for controlling blood pressure and circulation in the kidneys. In addition, it is thought HRS-1 may also be caused by a lack of oxygen and poor liver function.


The symptoms of HRS-1 typically worsen over time. Common symptoms may include fatigue, muscle cramps, weakness, worsening heart rate, weight loss, nausea, difficulty concentrating, confusion, and difficulty breathing. Less common symptoms may include fever, confusion, altered mental status, abdominal swelling, and jaundice.

Diagnosis and Treatment

A diagnosis of HRS-1 is made through physical, laboratory, and imaging tests. Common tests used to diagnose HRS-1 include blood tests, urinalysis, abdominal ultrasound, and liver function tests. In some cases, a kidney biopsy may also be performed to help confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for HRS-1 typically includes medications to help control blood pressure, reduce inflammation, and regulate fluid levels, as well as dialysis to help remove waste and toxins from the blood. Additionally, lifestyle changes may also be recommended to help improve kidney function. These changes may include limiting alcohol and salt intake, eating a balanced diet, exercising regularly, and avoiding smoking.


The best way to prevent HRS-1 is to manage any underlying liver condition, as well as take measures to keep the liver functioning properly. It is important to reduce any risk factors for the development of HRS-1, such as alcohol consumption, smoking, and taking medications that could have a negative effect on the liver. Additionally, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, such as following a balanced diet and getting regular exercise, may also help reduce the risk of developing HRS-1.


Hepatorenal Syndrome Type 1 is a serious and life-threatening kidney disorder that is often found in those with severe cirrhosis of the liver. Its symptoms can gradually worsen over time, leading to a rapid and irreversible decline of kidney function. While there is no cure, early diagnosis and treatment can help improve prognosis and prevent further complications. Additionally, managing any underlying liver condition and maintaining a healthy lifestyle can also help reduce the risk of HRS-1.