Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Test

and suitable refernces too.

What is Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Test?

An arterial blood gas (ABG) test measures the acidity (pH) and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood from an artery. The test is used to evaluate a person's lung function and to detect and evaluate acute or chronic respiratory diseases, as well as other metabolic and lung disorders.

Why is an Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Test Performed?

The ABG test is typically performed to evaluate a person's oxygenation and acid-base balance in the body. It is often ordered to help diagnose respiratory diseases such as emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or to evaluate a person's response to treatment for a respiratory condition.

Preparation for Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Test

No special preparation is typically needed for an ABG test. It is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking, including over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Let your healthcare provider know if you have recently had any chest surgery or have experienced any trauma to the chest.

Procedure for Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Test

An ABG test is usually performed by a healthcare provider in a hospital or clinic setting. The patient is asked to lie still while the procedure is performed. The patient's skin over the artery being tested is sanitized with an antiseptic. A tourniquet may be used to localize the area. A syringe is used todraw a sample from an artery. The artery is then release and pressure is applied to the area to stop the bleeding.

Types of Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Tests

There are two types of ABG tests: undefined and defined.
  • In an undefined ABG test, a sample of arterial blood is taken and the pH and gas levels are measured. This type of test does not measure the hemoglobin or oxygen saturation levels.
  • In a defined ABG test, a sample of arterial blood is taken and the pH, gas levels, hemoglobin and oxygen saturation levels are measured. This type of test may be used toNot diagnosis specific conditions such as COPD or to evaluate the effectiveness of lung transplants.

Risks of Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Test

The risks associated with an ABG test are considered to be minor. Since the test involves taking a sample of arterial blood, there is a risk of bleeding at the site of the puncture. Infection is also a potential risk. The risk of infection can be minimized by having the procedure done by a healthcare provider who practices proper sterilization techniques.

When is an Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Test Ordered?

An ABG test is typically ordered when a healthcare provider suspects a person has a respiratory disorder or problem with his or her oxygen-carbon dioxide balance. It may also be ordered to monitor the treatment of a respiratory disorder or for diagnostic purposes.


Healthline. (2020). Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Test: Preparation, Procedure, and Risks. Retrieved from