Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella typhi

What is Typhoid fever?

Typhoid fever, also known as enteric fever, is a bacterial infection caused by Salmonella Typhi (S. typhii) bacteria. It is transmitted by consuming food or water contaminated with the bacteria, or through contact with an infected individual. It is estimated to affect upwards of 22 million people each year, primarily in low and middle-income countries.

Symptoms of Typhoid fever

The symptoms of typhoid fever usually begin gradually and can include:

  • High fever up to 103˚F or 104˚F
  • Weakness
  • Headache
  • Abdominal pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Rash

Treatment of Typhoid fever

If the cause of your illness is Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) infection, the doctor will recommend oral or intravenous antibiotics.

Depending on your overall health condition, age, and the severity of the typhoid fever, your doctor will select the most suitable antibiotic treatment for you.

Common antibiotics used for treating typhoid fever include amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone and azithromycin.

Prevention of Typhoid fever

To prevent a typhoid fever infection, you should:

  • Wash your hands frequently, especially before handling food.
  • Wash fruit and vegetables thoroughly before eating.
  • Avoid drinking untreated water from sources like lakes or rivers.
  • Avoid eating foods that are not freshly cooked or are not reheated to a safe temperature.
  • Avoid recreational drug use, and practice safe sex.
  • Get vaccinated against typhoid fever.