Renovascular Hypertension

Renovascular Hypertension: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

Renovascular hypertension is a condition in which high blood pressure is caused by a narrowing of the kidneys' blood vessels, leading to a decrease in the kidneys' blood supply. This narrowing, which is also called renovascular disease, is the most common cause of secondary hypertension and can lead to long-term health problems. It is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of this condition and seek appropriate medical care for diagnosis and treatment.

Causes of Renovascular Hypertension

Renovascular hypertension is caused by a narrowing of the blood vessels that supply blood to the kidneys, and this narrowing can have several causes. The most common cause is atherosclerosis, which is the narrowing of the arteries due to a buildup of plaque. Renovascular hypertension can also be caused by fibromuscular dysplasia, a condition in which the walls of the arteries are thickened and narrowed. Other causes of renovascular hypertension include thrombosis, an obstruction of the artery caused by a blood clot, and embolism, the obstruction of an artery due to a clot that has traveled from another part of the body.

Symptoms of Renovascular Hypertension

Common symptoms of renovascular hypertension may include fatigue, headache, confusion, dizziness, nausea, and fainting. Renovascular hypertension can also cause chest pain due to reduced blood flow to the kidneys. Some people may also experience changes in their urine color, decreased appetite, swelling of the hands and feet, and weakness in the legs.

Diagnosis of Renovascular Hypertension

Renovascular hypertension can be difficult to diagnose since its symptoms can be similar to those of other conditions. To make an accurate diagnosis, healthcare providers will typically order a physical exam as well as laboratory tests, such as a complete blood count, renal ultrasound, and urine tests. Imaging tests, such as an angiogram or CT scan, are also used to diagnose the condition.

Treatment of Renovascular Hypertension

The treatment of renovascular hypertension depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery. Lifestyle changes may include reducing sodium intake, limiting alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking. Medications may include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and diuretics. Surgical procedures such as angioplasty or stenting may be recommended to open up the narrowed blood vessels.


Renovascular hypertension is a serious condition and it is important to diagnose it quickly and treat it appropriately. People who experience any of the symptoms of renovascular hypertension should seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.