Agnogenic Myeloid Metaplasia

What is Agnogenic Myeloid Metaplasia (AMM)?

Agnogenic myeloid metaplasia (AMM) is a rare blood disorder characterized by excessive production of cells called granulocytes. This overproduction leads to an increase in the number of white blood cells in the bone marrow, causing it to become too thick to allow new blood cells to form. The thickened bone marrow can interfere with the normal production of red blood cells and platelets, leading to anemia, easy bruising and bleeding.

AMM is also known as myelofibrosis or chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (CIMF). It is usually seen in people over 60 years of age, but can occur at any age. The cause of AMM is unknown, although it is thought to be related to certain genetic changes within the bone marrow cells.

Signs and Symptoms of AMM

Although AMM does not usually cause symptoms early in the disease, as the disorder progresses, it can cause:

  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Fever, sweating, and night sweats
  • Pain, swelling, and redness in the upper left abdomen
  • Easy bruising and bleeding
  • Shortness of breath, especially with exertion
  • Enlarged spleen
  • Anemia
  • Pale skin

Diagnosis and Treatment of AMM

AMM is diagnosed primarily through imaging tests, such as an X-ray, CT scan, or MRI. A bone marrow biopsy is also necessary for definitive diagnosis. In some cases, genetic testing may be used to look for mutations that can cause the disorder.

Treatment for AMM typically involves medications to reduce the number of granulocytes in the bone marrow. Cytoreductive therapies, such as chemotherapy, may also be used to suppress the overactive bone marrow. Additionally, treatments may be used to relieve symptoms, such as blood transfusions for anemia.

Rarely, surgical options may be recommended to help decrease the signs and symptoms of AMM. This includes removing the spleen (splenectomy) or parts of the bone marrow (marrow ablation).