Hydrochlorothiazide Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Food Interaction and all others data.

Amlodipine is a Dihydropyridine Calcium antagonist that inhibits the transmembrane influx of Calcium ions into cardiac and vascular smooth muscle. It has greater affinity towards vascular smooth muscle than on cardiac muscle. Amlodipine is peripheral vasodilator that acts directly on vascular smooth muscle to cause a reduction in peripheral vascular resistance and thereby reduces blood pressure. Amlodipine reduces tone, decreases coronary vasoreactivity and lowers cardiac oxygen demand by reducing after load.

General pharmacodynamic effects

Amlodipine has a strong affinity for cell membranes, modulating calcium influx by inhibiting selected membrane calcium channels. This drug's unique binding properties allow for its long-acting action and less frequent dosing regimen , .

Hemodynamic effects

Thiazides such as hydrochlorothiazide promote water loss from the body (diuretics). They inhibit Na+/Cl- reabsorption from the distal convoluted tubules in the kidneys. Thiazides also cause loss of potassium and an increase in serum uric acid. Thiazides are often used to treat hypertension, but their hypotensive effects are not necessarily due to their diuretic activity. Thiazides have been shown to prevent hypertension-related morbidity and mortality although the mechanism is not fully understood. Thiazides cause vasodilation by activating calcium-activated potassium channels (large conductance) in vascular smooth muscles and inhibiting various carbonic anhydrases in vascular tissue.

Hydrochlorothiazide prevents the reabsorption of sodium and water from the distal convoluted tubule, allowing for the increased elimination of water in the urine. Hydrochlorothiazide has a wide therapeutic window as dosing is individualized and can range from 25-100mg. Hydrochlorothiazide should be used with caution in patients with reduced kidney or liver function.

Olmesartan medoxomil is a potent, orally active, selective angiotensin II receptor (type AT1) antagonist. It is expected to block all actions of angiotensin II mediated by the AT1 receptor, regardless of the source or route of synthesis of angiotensin II. The selective antagonism of the angiotensin II (AT1) receptors results in increases in plasma renin levels and angiotensin I and II concentrations, and some decrease in plasma aldosterone concentrations. Angiotensin II is the primary vasoactive hormone of the renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system (RAAS) and plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of hypertension via the type 1 (AT1) receptor.

Overall, olmesartan's physiologic effects lead to reduced blood pressure, lower aldosterone levels, reduced cardiac activity, and increased excretion of sodium.

Hypotension in Volume- or Salt-Depleted Patients

In patients with an activated renin-angiotensin aldosterone system, such as volume-and/or salt-depleted patients (e.g., those being treated with high doses of diuretics), symptomatic hypotension may be anticipated after initiation of treatment with olmesartan. Initiate treatment under close medical supervision. If hypotension does occur, place the patient in the supine position and, if necessary, give an intravenous infusion of normal saline. A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further treatment, which usually can be continued without difficulty once the blood pressure has stabilized.

Trade Name Hydrochlorothiazide
Generic Amlodipine + Hydrochlorothiazide + Olmesartan
Weight 12.5mg, 12.5mg, 25mg, 50mg
Type Oral Tablet, Oral Capsule
Therapeutic Class
Available Country United States
Last Updated: September 19, 2023 at 7:00 am


Patients with mild to moderate hypertension (alone or in combination with other antihypertensives).

The treatment of chronic stable and vasospastic angina.

Raynaud\'s disease.

Hydrochlorothiazide is used for-

  • Edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrohosis, various forms of renal dysfunction and corticosteroid and estrogen therapy
  • Management of hypertension either as the sole therapeutic agent or to enhance the effectiveness of other antihypertensive drugs in the more severe form of hypertension
  • Management of diabetes insipidus
  • Management of proximal renal tubular acidosis
  • Idiopathic hypercalciuria and calcium nephrolithiasis, osteoporosis and exercise induced hyperkalemia

Olmesartan is used for the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension. Olmesartan may be used alone or in combination with thiazide diuretic.

Hydrochlorothiazide is also used to associated treatment for these conditions: Anginal Pain, Cardiovascular Events, Chronic Stable Angina Pectoris, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), High Blood Pressure (Hypertension), Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Hypertension,Essential, Mixed Dyslipidemias, Primary Hypercholesterolemia, Vasospastic AnginaAcidosis, Renal Tubular, Calcium Nephrolithiasis, Cirrhosis of the Liver, Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), Diabetes Insipidus, Edema, High Blood Pressure (Hypertension), Hypertension,Essential, Hypokalemia caused by diuretics, Nephrotic Syndrome, Premenstrual tension with edema, Sodium retention, Stroke, Prophylaxis of preeclampsiaDiabetic Nephropathy, High Blood Pressure (Hypertension), Severe Hypertension, Moderate Hypertension

How Hydrochlorothiazide works

Mechanism of action on blood pressure

Amlodipine is considered a peripheral arterial vasodilator that exerts its action directly on vascular smooth muscle to lead to a reduction in peripheral vascular resistance, causing a decrease in blood pressure. Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist (calcium ion antagonist or slow-channel blocker) that inhibits the influx of calcium ions into both vascular smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Experimental studies imply that amlodipine binds to both dihydropyridine and nondihydropyridine binding sites, located on cell membranes. The contraction of cardiac muscle and vascular smooth muscle are dependent on the movement of extracellular calcium ions into these cells by specific ion channels. Amlodipine blocks calcium ion influx across cell membranes with selectivity. A stronger effect of amlodipine is exerted on vascular smooth muscle cells than on cardiac muscle cells . Direct actions of amlodipine on vascular smooth muscle result in reduced blood pressure .

Mechanism of action in angina

The exact mechanism by which amlodipine relieves the symptoms of angina have not been fully elucidated to this date, however, the mechanism of action is likely twofold:

Amlodipine has a dilating effect on peripheral arterioles, reducing the total peripheral resistance (afterload) against which the cardiac muscle functions. Since the heart rate remains stable during amlodipine administration, the reduced work of the heart reduces both myocardial energy use and oxygen requirements .

Dilatation of the main coronary arteries and coronary arterioles, both in healthy and ischemic areas, is another possible mechanism of amlodipine reduction of blood pressure. The dilatation causes an increase in myocardial oxygen delivery in patients experiencing coronary artery spasm (Prinzmetal's or variant angina) and reduces coronary vasoconstriction caused by smoking .

Hydrochlorothiazide is transported from the circulation into epithelial cells of the distal convoluted tubule by the organic anion transporters OAT1, OAT3, and OAT4. From these cells, hydrochlorothiazide is transported to the lumen of the tubule by multidrug resistance associated protein 4 (MRP4).

Normally, sodium is reabsorbed into epithelial cells of the distal convoluted tubule and pumped into the basolateral interstitium by a sodium-potassium ATPase, creating a concentration gradient between the epithelial cell and the distal convoluted tubule that promotes the reabsorption of water.

Hydrochlorothiazide acts on the proximal region of the distal convoluted tubule, inhibiting reabsorption by the sodium-chloride symporter, also known as Solute Carrier Family 12 Member 3 (SLC12A3). Inhibition of SLC12A3 reduces the magnitude of the concentration gradient between the epithelial cell and distal convoluted tubule, reducing the reabsorption of water.

Olmesartan belongs to the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) family of drugs, which also includes telmisartan, candesartan, losartan, valsartan, and irbesartan. ARBs selectively bind to angiotensin receptor 1 (AT1) and prevent the protein angiotensin II from binding and exerting its hypertensive effects. As the principal pressor agent of the renin-angiotensin system, Angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction, stimulation of synthesis and release of aldosterone, cardiac stimulation and renal reabsorption of sodium. Olmesartan blocks the vasoconstrictor effects of angiotensin II by selectively blocking the binding of angiotensin II to the AT1 receptor in vascular smooth muscle. Its action is, therefore, independent of the pathways for angiotensin II synthesis. Overall, olmesartan's physiologic effects lead to reduced blood pressure, lower aldosterone levels, reduced cardiac activity, and increased excretion of sodium.

Olmesartan also effects on the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in hemostasis and regulation of kidney, vascular, and cardiac functions. Pharmacological blockade of RAAS via AT1 receptor blockade inhibits negative regulatory feedback within RAAS, which is a contributing factor to the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and renal disease. In particular, heart failure is associated with chronic activation of RAAS, leading to inappropriate fluid retention, vasoconstriction, and ultimately a further decline in left ventricular function. ARBs have been shown to have a protective effect on the heart by improving cardiac function, reducing afterload, increasing cardiac output and preventing ventricular hypertrophy and remodelling.


Hydrochlorothiazide dosage

For treatment of both hypertension and angina pectoris, the usual initial dose is 5 mg once daily. If the desired therapeutic effect cannot be achieved within 2-4 weeks, the dose may be increased to a maximum dose of 10 mg once daily. Amlodipine 10 mg once daily provides symptomatic improvement in patients with Raynaud's disease.

Use in children: Use of Amlodipine in children (under 12 years of age) is not recommended.


For Edema: The usual adult dosage is 25 to 100 mg daily as a single or divided dose.

For Control of Hypertension: The usual initial dose in adults is 25 mg daily given as a single dose. The dose may be increased to 50 mg daily, given as a single or two divided doses. Doses above 50 mg are often associated with marked reductions in serum potassium. In some patients (especially the elderly) an initial dose of 12.5 mg daily may be sufficient.

Infants and children-

For diuresis and for control of hypertension: The usual pediatric dosage is 1 to 2 mg/kg/day in single or two divided doses, not to exceed 37.5 mg per day in infants up to 2 years of age or 100 mg per day in children 2 to 12 years of age. In infants less than 6 months of age, doses up to 3 mg/kg/day in two divided doses may be required.

Adult:Dosage must be individualized. The usual initial dose is 10 mg once daily. In patients whose blood pressure is not adequately controlled at this dose, the dose may be increased to 20 mg once daily as the optimal dose. For patients requiring further reduction in blood pressure after 2 weeks of therapy, the dose of Olmesartan may be increased to 40 mg. Doses above 40 mg do not appear to have greater effect.

Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use: Of the total number of hypertensive patients receiving Olmesartan Medoxomil in clinical studies, more than 20% were 65 years of age and over, while more than 5% were 75 years of age and older. No overall differences in effectiveness or safety were observed between elderly patients and younger patients.

Side Effects

Amlodipine is generally well tolerated. The most commonly observed side effects are headache, peripheral oedema, palpitations, flushing, dizziness, nausea, abdominal pain.

Generally, Hydrochlorothiazide is well tolerated. However, a few side effects may occur like weakness, restlessness, dizziness, headache, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, sialadenitis, cramping, constipation, gastric irritation, nausea, anorexia, and hypotension. In rare case hyperglycemia, glycosuria, hyperuricemia and muscle spasm may occur.

Common or very common: Arthritis, chest pain, cough, fatigue, gastro-intestinal disturbances, haematuria, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyperuricaemia, influenza-like symptoms, musculoskeletal pain, peripheral edema, pharyngitis, rhinitis, urinary-tract infection.

Uncommon: Angina, rash, vertigo.

Very rare: Headache, myalgia, pruritus, thrombocytopenia, urticaria.


Acute oral toxicity (LD50): 37 mg/kg (mouse) .


An overdose of amlodipine could result in a high degree of peripheral vasodilatation with a possibility of reflex tachycardia. Significant and prolonged hypotension leading to shock and fatal outcomes have been reported .

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility

Rats and mice treated with amlodipine maleate in the diet on a long-term basis for up to 2 years demonstrated no evidence of a carcinogenic effect of the drug. For the mouse, the highest dose was comparable to the maximum recommended human dose of 10 mg amlodipine per day. For the rat, the highest dose was measured to be about twice the maximum recommended human dose .

Mutagenicity studies using amlodipine maleate showed no drug-related gene or chromosomal effects .

There was no impact on the fertility of rats given oral amlodipine maleate (males for 64 days and females for 14 days before mating) at doses up to 10 mg amlodipine/kg/day (8 times the maximum recommended human dose) .

Use in pregnancy

The safety of amlodipine in human pregnancy or lactation has not been proven. Amlodipine is therefore considered a pregnancy category C drug . Use amlodipine only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk .

Use in nursing

Discontinue when administering amlodipine .

The oral LD50 of hydrochlorothiazide is >10g/kg in mice and rats.

Patients experiencing an overdose may present with hypokalemia, hypochloremia, and hyponatremia. Treat patients with symptomatic and supportive treatment including fluids and electrolytes. Vasopressors may be administered to treat hypotension and oxygen may be given for respiratory impairment.

The reported LD50 of olmesartan in dogs was reported to be greater of 1500 mg/kg. Overdose is expressed as hypotension, tachycardia, and bradycardia when there is parasympathetic stimulation. In case of overdose, supportive treatment is recommended.

Olmesartan was shown to be safe on carcinogenic and fertility studies. However, in in vitro mutagenic studies showed a potential to induce chromosomal aberrations in cells and it tested positive for thymidine kinase mutations in the mouse lymphoma assay.


Hypotension: Since the vasodilUse in renal failure

Although Amlodipine is excreted primarily via kidney, mild renal impairment does not appear to have an effect on the plasma concentrations. Severe renal impairment may however require a dosage reduction. Amlodipine is not dialyzable.

Use in patients with impaired hepatic function

Amlodipine half-life is prolonged in patient with impaired hepatic function. Amlodipine should therefore be administered at lower (5mg) initial dose in these patients.

Use in heart failure

An increased number of pulmonary oedema has been reported.atation induced by Amlodipine is gradual in onset, acute hypotension has rarely been reported after oral administration of Amlodipine. Nonetheless, caution should be exercised when administering the drug with any other peripheral vasodilator particularly in patients with severe aortic stenosis.

Cardiac failure: Patients with heart failure should be treated with caution. Calcium channel blockers, including Amlodipine, should be usedwith caution in patients with congestive heart failure, as they may increase the risk of future cardiovascular events and mortality.

Beta blocker withdrawal: Amlodipine gives no protection against the danger of abrupt beta blocker withdrawal; any such withdrawal should be gradualreduction of the dose of beta blocker.

Hepatic failure: The half-life of amlodipine is prolonged and AUC values are higher in patients with impaired liver function. Amlodipine should therefore be initiated at the lower end of the dosing range and caution should be used, both on initial treatment and when increasing the dose. Slow dose titration and careful monitoring may be required in patients with severe hepatic impairment.

Thiazides should be used with caution in patients with severe renal disease, impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease and gout.

Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality: Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause fetal and neonatal morbidity and death when administered to pregnant women. Several dozen cases have been reported in the world literature of patients who were taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. When pregnancy is detected, Olmesartan Medoxomil should be discontinued as soon as possible.

Hypotension in Volume- or Salt-Depleted Patients: In patients with an activated renin-angiotensin system, such as volume- and/or salt-depleted patients (e.g., those being treated with high doses of diuretics), symptomatic hypotension may occur after initiation of treatment with Olmesartan Medoxomil. Treatment should start under close medical supervision. If hypotension does occur, the patient should be placed in the supine position and, if necessary, given an intravenous infusion of normal saline.


Use of Amlodipine together with thiazide diuretics or angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension is additive. There are no hazardous interaction of Amlodipine with Digoxin, Cimetidine, Warfarin and food.

Alcohol, Barbiturates, or Narcotics: Potentiation of orthostatic hypotension may occur.

Antidiabetic Drugs (oral agents and insulin): Thiazides can impair control of diabetes mellitus by diet and antidiabetic Drugs. Antihypertensive Drugs: Additive effect or potentiation.

No significant drug interactions were reported in studies in which Olmesartan Medoxomil was co-administered with digoxin or warfarin in healthy volunteers. The bioavailability of Olmesartan was not significantly altered by the co-administration of antacids [Al(OH)3/Mg(OH)2]. Olmesartan Medoxomil is not metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system and has no effects on P450 enzymes; thus, interactions with drugs that inhibit, induce or are metabolized by those enzymes are not expected.

Volume of Distribution

21 L/kg , .

The volume of distribution varies widely from one study to another with values of 0.83-4.19L/kg.

17 L[L5566]

Elimination Route

Amlodipine absorbed slowly and almost completely from the gastrointestinal tract. Peak plasma concentrations are achieved 6-12 hours after oral administration. The estimated bioavailability of amlodipine is 64-90%. Steady-state plasma amlodipine levels are achieved after 7-8 days of consecutive daily dosing. Absorption is not affected by food .

An oral dose of hydrochlorothiazide is 65-75% bioavailable, with a Tmax of 1-5 hours, and a Cmax of 70-490ng/mL following doses of 12.5-100mg. When taken with a meal, bioavailability is 10% lower, Cmax is 20% lower, and Tmax increases from 1.6 to 2.9 hours.

When taken orally, the prodrug olmesartan medoxomil is rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and metabolized to olmesartan. The esterification with medoxomil was created with the intention of increasing olmesartan bioavailability from 4.5% to 28.6%.

Oral administration of 10-160 mg of olmesartan has been shown to reach peak plasma concentration of 0.22-2.1 mg/L after 1-3 hours with an AUC of 1.6-19.9mgh/L. The pharmacokinetic profile of olmesartan has been observed to be nearly linear and dose-dependent under the therapeutic range. The steady-state level of olmesartan is achieved after once a day dosing during 3 to 5 days.[L5566]

Half Life

The terminal elimination half-life of about 30–50 hours .

Plasma elimination half-life is 56 hours in patients with impaired hepatic function, titrate slowly when administering this drug to patients with severe hepatic impairment .

The plasma half life of hydrochlorothiazide is 5.6-14.8h.

The mean plasma olmesartan half-life is reported to be from 10-15 hours after multiple oral administration.


Total body clearance (CL) has been calculated as 7 ± 1.3 ml/min/kg (0.42 ± 0.078 L/ h/kg) in healthy volunteers , .

Elderly patients show a reduced clearance of amlodipine with an AUC (area under the curve) increase of about 40–60%, and a lower initial dose may be required .

The renal clearance of hydrochlorothiazide in patients with normal renal function is 285mL/min. Patients with a creatinine clearance of 31-80mL/min have an average hydroxychlorothiazide renal clearance of 75mL/min, and patients with a creatinine clearance of ≤30mL/min have an average hydroxychlorothiazide renal clearance of 17mL/min.

Total plasma clearance is 1.3 L/h and the renal clearance is 0.6 L/h.[L5566]

Elimination Route

Elimination from the plasma occurs in a biphasic with a terminal elimination half-life of about 30–50 hours. Steady-state plasma levels of amlodipine are reached after 7-8 days of consecutive daily dosing . Amlodipine is 10% excreted as unchanged drug in the urine. Amlodipine can be initiated at normal doses in patients diagnosed with renal failure , .

Hydrochlorothiazide is eliminated in the urine as unchanged hydrochlorothiazide.

The main elimination route of olmesartan is in the unchanged form through the feces. From the systemically bioavailable dose, about 10-16% is eliminated in the urine.

Pregnancy & Breastfeeding use

Pregnancy: Safety in pregnancy has not been established.

Lactation: It is not known whether Amlodipine is excreted in breast milk. It is advised to stop breastfeeding during treatment with Amlodipine.

Pregnancy: Evidence of fetal risk in hydrochlorothiazide therapy is found, but it is indicated if benefits outweigh risks. Thiazides are indicated in pregnancy when edema is due to pathologic causes.\

Lactation: Neonatal side effects have been seen incase of hydrochlorothiazide therapy and therefore it is not recommended.

Pregnancy Categories C (first trimester) and D (second and third trimesters).

Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether Olmesartan is excreted in human milk, but Olmesartan is secreted at low concentration in the milk of lactating rats. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.


Amlodipine is contraindicated in patients with-

  • Hypersensitivity to amlodipine, dihydropyridine derivatives or any of the excipients
  • Shock (including cardiogenic shock)
  • Obstruction of the outflow-tract of the left ventricle (e.g. high grade aortic stenosis)
  • Unstable angina
  • Hemodynamically unstable heart failure after acute myocardial infarction (during the first 28 days)
  • Severe hypotension

Hydrochlorothiazide is contraindicated to the patients of anuria and those who are sensitive to hydrochlorothiazide or to other sulfonamide-derived drugs. Therapy is not to be initiated in diabetes mellitus.

Olmesartan is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product.

Special Warning

Children with hypertension from 6 years to 17 years of age: 2.5 mg once daily as a starting dose, up-titrated to 5 mg once daily if blood pressure goal is not achieved after 4 weeks. Doses in excess of 5 mg daily have not been studied in pediatric patients.

Children under 6 years old: The effect of amlodipine on blood pressure in patients less than 6 years of age is not known.

Elderly: Amlodipine used at similar doses in elderly or younger patients is equally well tolerated. Normal dosage regimens are recommended in the elderly, but increase of the dosage should take place with care.

Renal impairment: Changes in amlodipine plasma concentrations are not correlated with degree of renal impairment, therefore the normal dosage is recommended. Amlodipine is not dialysable.

Hepatic impairment: Dosage recommendations have not been established in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment; therefore dose selection should be cautions and should start at the lower end of the dosing range. The pharmacokinetics of Amlodipine have not been studied in severe hepatic impairment. Amlodipine should be initiated at the lowest dose (2.5 mg once daily) and titrated slowly in patients with severe hepatic impairment.

Elderly: in some patients specially the elderly an initial dose of 12.5 mg daily may be sufficient.

Children: An initial dose for children has been 1 to 2 mg per kg body-weight in 2 divided doses. Infants under 6 months may need doses upto 3 mg per kg daily.

Hepatic Impairment: Dose should not exceed 20 mg daily in moderate impairment.

Renal Impairment: Max. 20 mg daily if eGFR 20–60 mL/minute/1.73 m2. Avoid if eGFR less than 20 mL/minute/1.73 m2.

Acute Overdose

There is no well documented experience with Amlodipine overdosage. In case of clinically significant hypotension due to Amlodipine over dosage, calls for active cardiovascular support including monitoring of cardiac and respiratory function, elevation of extremities and attention to circulating fluid volume and urine output. Since Amlodipine is highly protein-bound, dialysis is unlikely to be of benefit.

The most common signs and symptoms observed are those caused by electrolyte depletion (hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyponatremia) and dehydration resulting from excessive diuresis. Rarely, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and other hypersensitivity reactions may complicate the picture.

In the event of over dosage, symptomatic and supportive measures should be employed. Emesis should be induced or gastric lavage performed. Correct dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, hepatic coma and hypotension by established procedures. Hemodialysis can be used successfully to treat severe intoxication.

Only limited information is available regarding overdosage in humans. The most likely effect of overdosage is hypotension. In the event of overdosage, the patient should be carefully monitored and treatment should be symptomatic and supportive. No information is available regarding the dialysability of olmesartan.

Storage Condition

Keep out of the reach of children. Store below 30° C. Keep in the original package in a cool & dry place in order to protect from light and moisture.

Store between 15-30°C. Protect from light, moisture and freezing.

Keep out of the reach of children. Keep in the original package in a cool & dry place. Protect from light and moisture.

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