Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

An Insight on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high levels of blood sugar (glucose) in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. It is one of the most common chronic diseases, and it is the leading cause of death and disability in the United States. T2DM is caused by a combination of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, diet, and environmental factors. The risk of developing T2DM can be reduced by maintaining a healthy lifestyle through regular physical activity and a balanced diet. In people with T2DM, the body is unable to adequately use or produce enough insulin to help process glucose from the bloodstream. This leads to an elevation in blood glucose levels and a number of potential health complications.

Signs and Symptoms

Common symptoms of T2DM include frequent urination, excessive thirst, unexplained weight gain or loss, fatigue, blurred vision, frequent infections, and slow healing of wounds. It is important to seek medical attention if any of these symptoms occur.

Risk Factors

The risk of T2DM increases with age. Other risk factors include family history, being overweight or obese, physical inactivity, having high blood pressure, and having high cholesterol. Being diagnosed with prediabetes can also increase the risk of developing T2DM. Prediabetes is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.


People with T2DM are at an increased risk for a number of serious health complications, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, kidney failure, vision loss, nerve damage, and amputations.


T2DM is a progressive disease, and treatment includes lifestyle changes, medications, and insulin therapy, depending on the severity of the condition.

  • Lifestyle Changes - engaging in regular physical activity and following a balanced diet are important for managing T2DM.
  • Medications - oral medications or insulin injections may be prescribed to help keep blood sugar levels in a healthy range.
  • Insulin Therapy - this is often necessary for people with more severe T2DM.
In addition to these treatments, regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are important for monitoring the progress of the disease and preventing long-term complications.