Multiple Myeloma (MM)

Multiple Myeloma

Multiple myeloma, also known as MM, is a cancer of the white blood cells called plasma cells. This rare form of cancer occurs in the bone marrow and affects the production of healthy plasma cells in the blood, leading to an accumulation of malignant plasma cells. Patients with multiple myeloma may experience symptoms such as bone pain, anemia, weakness, multiple fractures, and frequent infections.

Treatment for multiple myeloma includes chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, and immunomodulating drugs. Some patients may also benefit from combining two or more of these therapies. Depending on the individual’s condition, the treatment approach may be different.

The prognosis for multiple myeloma depends on many factors, including the patient's age, stage of the disease, and response to treatment. Treatment and care are tailored to each individual's needs.

Risk Factors

The exact cause of multiple myeloma is unknown, but some factors may increase a person's risk of developing the condition. These include: age, being male, family history of blood cancers, certain infections, environmental factors, certain hormones, and chronic diseases.

Symptoms of Multiple Myeloma

  • Bone pain or fractures
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Lack of appetite
  • Frequent infections
  • Weight loss
  • Nausea
  • Shortness of breath
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Anemia


Multiple myeloma is typically diagnosed during a physical exam. Diagnostic tests such as blood tests, urinary tests, imaging, and bone marrow tests may also be done to confirm the diagnosis and determine the extent of the disease.


Treatment for multiple myeloma depends on the stage of the disease and each individual's overall health. Generally, therapies may include chemotherapy, radiation, stem cell transplantation, and medications that boost the immune system. Additional medications and lifestyle changes may also be prescribed to reduce symptoms and side effects of treatment.