Moods Disorders

Mood Disorders

Mood disorders, also known as affective disorders, are conditions that affect a person’s emotional state, causing them to experience changes in their mood. People with a mood disorder may have symptoms of depression, mania, or a combination of both. These disorders can be debilitating and affect a person’s relationships, work, and overall quality of life.

Types of Mood Disorders

The most common types of mood disorders are major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, dysthymia, cyclothymia, postpartum depression, seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and substance-induced mood disorder. These disorders vary greatly in terms of symptoms, severity, and duration.

Major Depressive Disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most common type of mood disorder. It is characterized by a period of at least two weeks of low mood and other related symptoms, such as fatigue, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a condition in which a person experiences alternating periods of intense lows (depression) and highs (mania). It’s typically characterized by periods of depression alternating with episodes of mania, which can cause a wide range of moods, energy levels, and behaviors. Common symptoms of mania include a decreased need for sleep, increased talkativeness, racing thoughts, impulsive behavior, and excessive spending.


Dysthymia is a type of mood disorder characterized by a persistent, low-grade depression over a period of at least two years. People with dysthymia may experience feelings of hopelessness, low self-esteem, and low energy. They may also have difficulty concentrating, sleeping, and making decisions.


Cyclothymia is a type of bipolar disorder in which a person experiences alternating periods of hypomania and depression. Symptoms of hypomania may include: heightened energy, increased irritability, decreased need for sleep, and extreme optimism. Symptoms of depression may include: sadness, guilt, fatigue, decreased energy, and difficulty concentrating.

Postpartum Depression

Postpartum depression is a type of mood disorder experienced by some new mothers shortly after giving birth. Common symptoms of postpartum depression include feelings of sadness, guilt, anxiety, and irritability. These symptoms may last up to a year after giving birth.

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of mood disorder that follows the changing of the seasons. It is characterized by feelings of depression that typically begin in the fall and winter months and improve during the spring and summer months. Common symptoms include fatigue, decreased energy, difficulty concentrating, increased appetite, and low self-esteem.

Substance-Induced Mood Disorder

Substance-induced mood disorder is a type of mood disorder in which the primary symptoms are caused by the use of drugs or alcohol. It is characterized by symptoms such as depression, mania, anxiety, and paranoia. These symptoms generally resolve when the substance use is stopped.