Mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells

Mobilization of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are a type of stem cells responsible for the production of all types of blood cells: red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells. HSCs are located primarily in the bone marrow, although they can also be found in the bloodstream and other organs. Mobilization of these cells involves inducing the release of HSCs from the bone marrow into the bloodstream, and is a process used in many forms of stem cell transplantation.

Mobilization of HSCs can be achieved through the use of chemotherapeutic agents such as granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF), stem cell factor (SCF), and chemokines. Administration of these agents causes the release of mobilization proteins including the chemokines CXCL12 and CXCR4, which activate HSCs and allow them to move freely in the bloodstream.

Once released from the bone marrow, HSCs can be harvested from the peripheral blood through a procedure known as leukapheresis. This process involves taking a sample of the patient's peripheral blood and removing the HSC cells through an immuno-magnetic process. Once the HSC cells have been isolated, they are usually re-administered to the patient, either systemically or directly to the bone marrow, for the purpose of replacing diseased or