Histocompatibility antigen test

Histocompatibility Antigen Tests

Histocompatibility antigen tests are used to determine the compatibility of transplanted organs, cells, and tissue for use in medical treatments. By performing a histocompatibility antigen test, healthcare professionals are able to identify and match the tissue type of the recipient patient with a donor and determine if the donor tissue is suitable for the recipient patient. The tests are used for a variety of medical treatments, ranging from blood transfusions, organ replacements, and tissue grafts.

Preparation for the Test

Preparation for the test is dependent on the type of tissue being tested. For organ or tissue donations, the donor will undergo a series of tests, such as physical examinations, blood tests, and tissue typing tests. For blood transfusions, the recipient patient will be asked to provide a sample of their blood prior to the transfusion.


The procedure for the test is dependent upon the type of tissue being tested. For organ or tissue donations, a sample of the donor's tissue is taken and checked for compatibility with the recipient's tissue. For blood transfusions, the recipient's blood is checked for compatibility with the donor's blood.

Types of Histocompatibility Antigen Tests

The most common type of histocompatibility antigen test is the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) test. This test is used to match organs, tissues, bone marrow, or blood between donor and recipient. Other types of histocompatibility antigen testing include HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP.


There are risks associated with histocompatibility antigen tests when performed in transplanted organs and cells. These risks include rejection of the donor tissue, infection, and immunologic complications. Additionally, there is a risk of possible transmission of blood-borne diseases, such as HIV or hepatitis.

Why and When Are Histocompatibility Antigen Tests Ordered?

Histocompatibility antigen tests are ordered when a patient needs a blood transfusion, organ or tissue transplant, or bone marrow donation. It is necessary to match the tissue types between donor and recipient in order to minimize the risk of rejection of the donated tissue. Histocompatibility antigen tests are also used when an individual needs immunosuppression therapy to prevent organ or tissue rejection.