Hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis

What is Hypocitraturic Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis?

Hypocitraturic Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis (HCN) is a condition involving the formation of kidney stones in people who have low levels of citrate in their urine. The stones are made up of crystals of calcium oxalate, which are a type of salt. Kidney stones typically form when substances such as minerals, salts, and other materials become balanced or concentrated in the urine. If these substances come together and create a solid lump, it can come out of the body as a stone.

Causes of Hypocitraturic Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis:

The main cause of HCN is a reduced citrate excretion in the urine. This can occur due to a variety of medical conditions, including the following:

  • Dietary habits that are low in citrate, such as those high in protein and animal products and low in fruits and vegetables
  • Certain medications, like diuretics and calcium supplements
  • Medical conditions like intestinal disorders and renal tubular acidosis
  • Gastrointestinal problems such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis

It is important to note that HCN can occur without any known cause, or with a combination of the above factors.

Symptoms of Hypocitraturic Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis:

The most common symptom of HCN is pain in the lower back or abdomen. This pain can be sudden and intense. Other symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, cloudy or foul-smelling urine, and blood in the urine.

Treatment of Hypocitraturic Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis:

Treatment for HCN typically involves increasing citrate intake, either through dietary changes or supplements. Dietary changes can include increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables, which are high in citrate. Supplements may include potassium citrate, citric acid, or sodium citrate.

In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help reduce pain associated with kidney stones, lower the amount of calcium and oxalate in the urine, or increase citrate concentrations. If kidney stones become too large, they may need to be surgically removed.