Immunofixation - urine

What is Immunofixation in urine?

Immunofixation in urine, often referred to as IFE or Immunofixation Electrophoresis, is a laboratory test used to help diagnose and monitor certain diseases involving proteins in the body.

The purpose of this test is to analyze the types and amounts of proteins present in the urine. These proteins are used to determine the presence of monoclonal proteins such as IgG, IgA, and IgM. This test can also be used to estimate the level of total protein in the urine.

Preparation for Immunofixation In Urine

Before undergoing this test, it is important to talk to your doctor about any allergies you may have. An allergy to the materials used in the test could potentially cause an adverse reaction.

Your doctor may also ask you to abstain from eating or drinking anything for several hours before the test, and to avoid taking certain medications that may affect the results.

Procedure For Immunofixation In Urine

The procedure begins by collecting a urine sample from the patient into a clean and sterile container. The sample is placed in an analyzer and the proteins are separated using an electrical charge.

The proteins are separated by their electrical mobility, which is based on the degree of charge and size. The separated proteins are then detected and the results are determined. The results are then compared to the reference values.

Types of Immunofixation In Urine

There are several types of proteins detected during immunofixation in urine such as:

  • Immunoglobulin A (IgA)
  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
  • Immunoglobulin M (IgM)
  • Free Light Chains (FLC)


The risks associated with immunofixation in urine are generally minimal. Some patients may experience minor discomfort when the urine sample is taken. However, severe or adverse reactions are extremely rare.

Why Is Immunofixation In Urine Performed?

Immunofixation in urine is primarily used to detect monoclonal proteins such as IgG, IgA, and IgM that may indicate the presence of a medical condition such as Multiple Myeloma, Waldenstroms Macroglobulinemia, or Amyloidosis. It can also detect an increase in total protein levels in the urine.

When Is Immunofixation In Urine Performed?

Immunofixation in urine is usually ordered when the initial screening test (i.e. the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio) results are abnormal. It can also be used to monitor patients who have been diagnosed with a protein-related disease. Additionally, it may be used to monitor patients receiving treatment for a protein-related disease.