Refractory Aplastic anemia

What is Refractory Aplastic Anemia?

Refractory aplastic anemia (RAA) is a rare type of bone marrow failure disease in which the body stops producing enough red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets due to the destruction of the bone marrow. This can lead to serious and life-threatening infections, anemia, and bleeding.


Patients with RAA may experience fatigue, paleness, shortness of breath, dizziness, and frequent infections. In more severe cases, bone marrow failure can also result in anemia, where the red blood cells are not produced in adequate numbers to carry oxygen and nutrients throughout the body.


The exact cause of RAA is not known, however, it is believed to be a result of an immune response to the bone marrow, which leads to the destruction of both red and white blood cells, as well as platelets. The exact trigger of this response is still under investigation. Some factors that may increase a person’s risk of developing RAA include exposure to certain chemicals or drugs, a history of viral infections, or genetic causes.

Treatment for Refractory Aplastic Anemia

Treatment for RAA focuses on helping the body produce more blood cells. Treatment options include:

  • Blood Transfusions: to increase red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
  • Stem Cell Transplant: to replace stem cells that make blood cells in the bone marrow.
  • Immunosuppression: to suppress the immune system and allow the bone marrow to produce new blood cells.
  • Drug Therapy: to help increase the production of new blood cells in the bone marrow.
  • Bone marrow biopsy: to measure the effectiveness of the treatments.


RAA may lead to serious medical complications, including infection, bleeding, and anemia. If left untreated, RAA can be life-threatening.