Pemphigus: Causes, Symptoms, And Treatments

Pemphigus is an autoimmune disease that affects the outer layer of skin, causing blisters and sores. It is a rare yet serious condition that requires prompt medical diagnosis and treatment. Below are more key points about pemphigus and the latest treatments.


The exact cause of pemphigus is unknown, but it is believed to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It is an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the body’s own immune system attacks its own tissues. The antibodies produced by the immune system attack and destroy the molecules that anchor the outer layer of skin cells to the underlying layer, resulting in blister and sore formation.


The main symptoms of pemphigus are blisters and sores on the skin and mucous membranes. These blisters may be filled with fluid, and they can be painful and itchy. Other symptoms of pemphigus can include:

  • Skin lesions (raised, reddened patches)
  • Dry, cracked skin
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss


Your doctor can diagnose pemphigus based on physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. These tests may involve skin biopsies, which involve taking a small sample of affected skin and examining it under a microscope. Your doctor may also conduct blood tests to check for antibodies (proteins produced by the immune system).


The main goal of treatment for pemphigus is to control the symptoms and minimize the risk of complications. Treatment may include:

  • Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system
  • Immunosuppressants to further reduce immune system activity
  • Topical medications to help heal skin lesions
  • Phototherapy to help improve skin lesions
  • Antibiotics to treat infections


Since the exact cause of pemphigus is unknown, there is no known means of preventing the condition. However, there are certain steps you can take to reduce your risk of developing pemphigus. These include managing stress levels, avoiding triggers such as certain medications and sun exposure, and eating a healthy diet. Additionally, it is important to seek medical advice if any skin changes or lesions occur.