Bleeding caused by Factor X Deficiency

What is Factor X Deficiency?

Factor X Deficiency is a rare blood clotting disorder caused by a deficiency of the coagulation factor X (FX). It is also known as Stuart-Prower deficiency or the rarest type of hemophilia, acquired hemophilia. Factor X is necessary for the body to form a blood clot, and without it, the blood will not clot normally. People with this disorder are at an increased risk for excessive bleeding, which can occur after a minor injury, surgery, childbirth, or without any known cause.

Signs and Symptoms of Factor X Deficiency

The most common symptoms of Factor X Deficiency are bleeding and bruising more easily than normal and prolonged bleeding from cuts, wounds, surgery, and childbirth. Other possible signs and symptoms include the following:

  • Excessive bleeding in joints or soft tissues
  • Blood in the urine
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Headaches
  • Loss of consciousness due to bleeding into the brain
  • Nosebleeds
  • Prolonged or heavy menstrual bleeding
  • Skin rash due to bleeding under the skin

Diagnosis of Factor X Deficiency

Factor X deficiency is diagnosed through laboratory tests of the blood clotting proteins called factors. The most commonly used test is the PT/factor X assay, which measures the activity of factor X in the blood. Other tests include the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and the thrombin clotting time (TCT). If the person is found to have a deficiency of factor X, genetic testing can be done to determine the underlying cause.

Treatment of Factor X Deficiency

The treatment of Factor X Deficiency usually involves the use of factor replacement therapy. This involves the injection of factor concentrate, which is a preparation of factor X that can be given intravenously. The goal of therapy is to replace the deficient factor and reach a safe level of activity in the blood. This should stop the bleeding episodes. In some patients, the factor replacement dose may need to be increased or given more frequently.

Prevention of Bleeding Episodes

People with Factor X Deficiency can take steps to prevent excessive bleeding. This includes avoiding activities that could cause injury or trauma, such as contact sports and strenuous physical activity. It is also important to inform healthcare providers of the diagnosis and to follow the treatment plan prescribed by the doctor.