Gum biopsy

Gum Biopsy: What Is It & Why Is It Done?

A gum biopsy is a procedure used to diagnose gum disease and other oral health issues. During this procedure, a small amount of gum tissue is removed from the mouth and examined under a microscope. It is also used to diagnose oral cancer and cancer in the oropharynx. The biopsy can help determine the cause of abnormal symptoms such as gum tenderness, redness, swelling and bleeding. It is used to identify specific areas of infection and/or inflammation, as well as tissue abnormalities.


To prepare for the biopsy procedure, the area where the biopsy is to be taken must be thoroughly cleaned. This will involve brushing and flossing the teeth and using a special antiseptic solution. The patient must also rinse their mouth with antiseptic solution before the procedure. They may also be given a local anesthetic to reduce the feeling of discomfort while the biopsy is being taken.


To take the biopsy, the dentist or periodontist will use a small scalpel to cut a small piece of gum tissue. This tissue will then be sent for examination under a microscope. The entire biopsy usually takes about 10 minutes. After the biopsy is taken, the patient may experience some minor bleeding, but this should stop on its own.

Types of Gum Biopsy

There are two main types of gum biopsy: a punch biopsy and an excisional biopsy. The punch biopsy is a more precise procedure that involves making a tiny “punch” in the gum tissue in order to collect a small sample. The excisional biopsy is a more invasive procedure that requires the removal of a larger sample of tissue from the mouth.


Gum biopsies are generally considered to be a safe procedure, but there are some risks associated with it. These include bleeding, infection, and minor pain and discomfort. In rare cases, the biopsy may also cause scarring or irreversible damage to the gum tissue.

Why Is It Done?

Gum biopsies are performed to diagnose gum disease, oral cancer, or other gum and oral tissue abnormalities. It can also be used to monitor the progress of treatment for these conditions.

When Is It Necessary?

A gum biopsy is usually recommended if there are unexplained or abnormal changes in the mouth, especially concerning the gums. It is necessary when more information is needed to accurately diagnose and treat a medical condition or to monitor the effectiveness of a treatment.