Type III hyperlipidaemia

What is Type III Hyperlipidaemia?

Type III Hyperlipidaemia is a rare type of cholesterol disorder that usually affects adults. It is a type of familial hyperlipidaemia, meaning that it is caused by a genetic mutation. Individuals with Type III Hyperlipidaemia mostly have very high levels of LDL cholesterol in their blood, also known as “bad” cholesterol. Additional lipid components that accumulate include triglycerides, VLDL cholesterol, intermediate density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a).

Symptoms Associated with Type III Hyperlipidaemia

Type III Hyperlipidaemia may produce few symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they are often signs that can be associated with other conditions, or with no condition at all. Common symptoms of this type of hyperlipidaemia include:

  • Pain in the calves when walking
  • Xanthomas, which are yellow plaques that form on the skin
  • High cholesterol levels, indicated through blood tests

Causes of Type III Hyperlipidaemia

Type III Hyperlipidaemia is thought to be caused by a mutation in the gene that produces ApoB-100, a protein involved in carrying fatty acids and other lipids around the body. ApoB-100 helps regulate levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood, and directs where the cholesterol is sent in the body. If the gene that produces ApoB-100 is mutated, an individual will have abnormally high levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Type III Hyperlipidaemia

Type III Hyperlipidaemia is usually diagnosed through a series of blood tests. Once a diagnosis is made, treatment typically includes lifestyle changes like exercising more and eating a healthy diet. If necessary, a doctor may also prescribe medication to reduce LDL cholesterol levels. Patients with Type III Hyperlipidaemia should also be monitored carefully by a doctor to make sure their cholesterol levels are not too high, as this can lead to serious health problems.