Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH)

Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH)

Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH) is a life-threatening complication of pregnancy and is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality worldwide. PPH is defined as the loss of more than 500 mL of blood after vaginal or cesarean delivery.

Causes of PPH

The causes of PPH include uterine atony, tear in birth canal, abnormal placental separation, retained placental fragments, coagulopathy, and vascular abnormalities.

Recognising Signs of PPH

The signs of PPH include increased pulse rate, bleeding from vagina, overcrowding in uterus, tremors and chills, low and falling blood pressure, reduced urine output, and delirium. Women may also experience postpartum anemia, which can lead to fatigue, breathlessness, and dizziness.


Treatment for PPH depends on its severity. Treatment options include:

  • Massage of the uterus
  • Medications to contract the uterus
  • Blood transfusions
  • Surgery to stop the bleeding


The risk of PPH can be reduced by taking preventive measures, such as:

  • Monitoring and tracking maternal blood loss
  • Educating medical staff on early warning signs of PPH
  • Administration of prophylactic uterotonic medications, such as oxytocin
  • Early recognition of the condition and prompt treatment


Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH) is a serious complication of pregnancy that can lead to maternal mortality. However, preventive measures, early recognition, and timely treatment can greatly reduce the risk of PPH and help ensure the safety of mother and baby.