Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events

What is Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACE)?

Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) is a categorized term for acute cardiovascular complications of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and revascularization procedures. Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACE) have been frequently used as a composite endpoint in the evaluation of medical, device, and revascularization procedures efficacy and safety.

How are major adverse cardiovascular events measured?

The ideal MACE study uses a standardized, validated assessment of pre- and post-treatment risk-adjusted mortality and morbidity to compare outcome measures between groups. Clinical trials have typically demonstrated the effectiveness of a medical device or treatment using mortality, morbidity and/or revascularization endpoints.

What are the different components of MACE?

  • Death: Cardiovascular death refers to mortality attributed to a cardiovascular cause.
  • Nonfatal Myocardial Infarction (MI): A clinical diagnosis of MI associated with objective evidence of myocardial injury (electrocardiographic, echocardiographic or biochemical changes of MI).
  • Stroke: A clinical diagnosis of stroke associated with objective imaging evidence.
  • Revascularization: This includes any revascularization procedure that takes place during the study period.

What types of studies utilize the MACE endpoint?

Large randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are used to assess MACE endpoints. These trials assess medical treatments, devices, interventional techniques, and electrophysiologic techniques in the management of cardiovascular diseases. MACE endpoints have been utilized in a range of cardiovascular studies, including atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and stroke.