Infectious Periodontal Diseases

Infectious Periodontal Diseases

Periodontal (gum) diseases are a group of infectious diseases that can damage the bone and soft tissue of the gums. If left untreated, the gums and bone can separate from the teeth, leading to tooth loss. Periodontal diseases can range from mild gingivitis to severe periodontitis.

Types of Periodontal Diseases:

  • Gingivitis: It is an inflammation of the gums caused by bacteria in plaque. It can be reversed with adequate plaque control and professional treatment.
  • Periodontitis: It is an inflammatory condition of the soft tissues and bone that support the teeth. It develops when gingivitis is left untreated and can cause loss of teeth.
  • Advanced Periodontitis: Severe periodontitis can lead to advanced periodontal diseases, which is a more serious and destructive form of the disease. It can cause loss of teeth and eventual destruction of the jawbone.
  • Abscessed Teeth: Infection around the tooth can cause abscesses to form. This is a serious condition that can cause pain and swelling of the gums. Treatment of abscessed teeth includes antibiotics, debridement, and scaling.
  • Aggressive Periodontitis: It is a form of periodontitis that develops relatively quickly, with rapid destruction of bone and loss of teeth. It is thought to be caused by certain bacteria in the plaque that attack the soft tissues and bone. It is most common in young individuals.

Diagnosis of Periodontal Diseases:

Periodontal diseases can be diagnosed by a thorough examination of the gums and teeth. The examination should include an evaluation of the condition of the gums, depth of the periodontal pockets, mobility of the teeth, and presence or absence of any dental prostheses. X-rays are also helpful in diagnosing periodontal diseases as they can show bone loss and infection. The dentist may also take a sample of the plaque to determine the type of bacteria present in the mouth. Treatment of Periodontal Diseases:

Treatment of periodontal diseases is dependent on the type and severity of the disease. Treatment can include professional cleaning, medications, and surgery. Professional cleaning involves scaling and root planing, which is the removal of plaque and calculus from the surfaces of the teeth and below the gum line. This can help remove infection and improve the health of the gums. Medications, such as antibiotics, can also be used to control infection. Surgery may be required in more advanced cases of periodontal diseases to restore the health of the gum tissue and jawbone.