Linzess Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Food Interaction and all others data.

Linzess is an orally administered, peptide agonist of guanylate cyclase 2C for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Chemically, it is a heterodetic cyclic peptide and consists of fourteen amino acids. The protein sequence is as follows: Cys Cys Glu Tyr Cys Cys Asn Pro Ala Cys Thr Gly Cys Tyr. There are three disulfide bonds which are located between Cys1 and Cys6; between Cys2 and Cys10; and between Cys5 and Cys13. FDA approved on August 30, 2012.

Changes in the appearance and consistency of stools as measured by the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) have been noted after taking linaclotide.

Trade Name Linzess
Availability Prescription only
Generic Linaclotide
Linaclotide Other Names Linaclotida, Linaclotide
Related Drugs dicyclomine, MiraLAX, lactulose, Colace, docusate, Linzess, bisacodyl, Bentyl, senna, hyoscyamine
Weight 145mcg, 290mcg, 72mcg,
Type Oral capsule
Formula C59H79N15O21S6
Weight Average: 1526.736
Monoisotopic: 1525.389918805
Groups Approved
Therapeutic Class
Available Country United States,
Last Updated: September 19, 2023 at 7:00 am


Linzess is a guanylate cyclase-C agonist used to treat constipation associated with irritable bowel syndrome or that is idiopathic in nature.

Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with constipation and chronic idiopathic constipation.

Linzess is also used to associated treatment for these conditions: Constipation-predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS-C), Chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC)

How Linzess works

Linzess is an agonist of guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C). Once linaclotide and its active metabolite binds to GC-C, it has local effect on the luminal surface of the intestinal epithelium. Activation of GC-C by linaclotide results in the intra- and extracellular increase of cyclic guanosine monophosphate concentrations (cGMP). This elevation of cGMP levels stimulates the secretion of chloride and bicarbonate into the intestinal lumen via activation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) ion channel. Ultimately, linaclotide helps patients with IBS (especially with constipation) as GI transit is accelerated and the release of intestinal fluid is increased. In animal models, a decrease in visceral pain after administration of linaclotide may be observed. A decrease in the activity of pain-sensing nerves occurs as a result of an increase in extracellular cGMP.


Most common adverse reactions (incidence of at least 2%) reported in IBS-C or CIC patients are diarrhea, abdominal pain, flatulence and abdominal distension.

Food Interaction

  • Avoid fatty foods. Co-administration with fatty foods may cause loose stools.

[Moderate] ADJUST DOSING INTERVAL: Administration of linaclotide in the fed condition resulted in more gastrointestinal side effects and more frequent and looser stools, than when it was administered under fasting conditions.

MANAGEMENT: It is recommended to take linaclotide 30 minutes before a meal.

Volume of Distribution

Given that linaclotide plasma concentrations following therapeutic oral doses are not measurable, linaclotide is expected to be minimally distributed to tissues.

Elimination Route

When taken orally, linaclotide is not absorbed into the systemic. No detectable levels of linaclotide or its active metabolite were noted after doses of 125 mcg or 290 mcg were administered.

Half Life

Because linaclotide is not systemically absorbed, half life cannot be calculated.

Elimination Route

Linzess is eliminated fecally (3 - 5% as active metabolites). However most of the dose undergoes proteolysis (processes include reduction of disulfide bonds) in the intestine before being excreted via feces.

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