Thiamine Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Food Interaction and all others data.

Thiamine, in the form of thiamine pyrophosphate, is the coenzyme for decarboxylation of α-ketoglutaric acid. Thiamine deficiency affects the peripheral nervous system, the gastrointestinal tract, and the cardiovascular system. This vitamin is necessary for the optimal growth of infants and children. Thiamine is not stored in the body, and is regularly lost from tissues during short periods of deficiency. In order to maintain normal health, an adequate amount of thiamine is required every day. Deficiency of thiamine leads to fatigue, anorexia, gastrointestinal disturbance, tachycardia, irritability and neurological symptoms. Beriberi, a disease due to vitamin B1 deficiency, is common in alcoholics, in pregnant women receiving an inadequate diet, and in people with malabsorption syndrome, prolonged diarrhoea and hepatic disease.

Thiamine is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and widely distributed throughout the body. Thiamine is rapidly absorbed from the upper small intestine. Thiamine is not stored in the body to any appreciable extent. Excess ingested thiamine appears in urine as intact thiamine or as pyrimidine, which arises from degradation of the thiamine molecule. The plasma half life of thiamine is 24 hours.

Thiamine is a vitamin with antioxidant, erythropoietic, cognition-and mood-modulatory, antiatherosclerotic, putative ergogenic, and detoxification activities. Thiamine has been found to protect against lead-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver and kidney. Thiamine deficiency results in selective neuronal death in animal models. The neuronal death is associated with increased free radical production, suggesting that oxidative stress may play an important early role in brain damage associated with thiamine deficiency. Thiamine plays a key role in intracellular glucose metabolism and it is thought that thiamine inhibits the effect of glucose and insulin on arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation. Inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation may also promote atherosclerosis. Endothelial cells in culture have been found to have a decreased proliferative rate and delayed migration in response to hyperglycemic conditions. Thiamine has been shown to inhibit this effect of glucose on endothelial cells.

Trade Name Thiamine
Availability Rx and/or OTC
Generic Thiamine
Thiamine Other Names Aneurin, Antiberiberi factor, Thiamin, Thiamine, thiamine(1+), thiamine(1+) ion, thiaminium, Thiaminum, Tiamina, Vitamin B1
Related Drugs ferrous sulfate, folic acid, ergocalciferol, Zinc, selenium, Vitamin B1
Weight 100mg/ml, 100mg, 250mg, 50mg,
Type Injectable solution, oral tablet
Formula C12H17N4OS
Weight Average: 265.355
Monoisotopic: 265.112306876
Protein binding


Groups Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet approved
Therapeutic Class Vitamin-B preparations
Available Country United States
Last Updated: September 19, 2023 at 7:00 am


Thiamine is specifically used in the treatment of the various manifestations of thiamine deficiency such as Beriberi and Wernick's encephalopathy, neuritis associated with pregnancy and pellagra. Supplementary Thiamine may be used prophylactically in conditions where there is low dietary intake or impaired gastro intestinal absorption of thiamine (e.g. alcohol) or where requirements are increased (pregnancy, carbohydrate rich diet).

Thiamine is also used to associated treatment for these conditions: Anemia, B12 Deficiency Anemia, Beriberi, Cardiovascular Heart Disease caused by Thiamine Deficiency, Folic Acid Deficiency Anemia, Infantile Beriberi, Infection, Iron Deficiency (ID), Liver disorder, Neuritis caused by Pregnancy, Secondary anemia, Thiamine Deficiency, Vitamin Deficiency, Wernicke's encephalopathy, Nutritional supplementation, Vitamin supplementation, Dietary supplementation

How Thiamine works

It is thought that the mechanism of action of thiamine on endothelial cells is related to a reduction in intracellular protein glycation by redirecting the glycolytic flux. Thiamine is mainly the transport form of the vitamin, while the active forms are phosphorylated thiamine derivatives. Natural derivatives of thiamine phosphate, such as thiamine monophosphate (ThMP), thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), also sometimes called thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), thiamine triphosphate (ThTP), and thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), that act as coenzymes in addition to their each unique biological functions.


Thiamine dosage

Prophylaxis: 3 to 10 mg daily.

Mild chronic deficiency: 10 to 25 mg daily.

Severe deficiency: 200 to 300 mg daily.

Side Effects

Vitamin B1 does not have adverse effects when given orally, but in a few fatal cases anaphylactic reactions have occurred after intravenous administration of large doses (400 mg) in sensitive patients, especially children, and in one case following an intramuscular dose of 125 mg. The risk of such reactions increases with repeated administration of the drug by parenteral route. Transient mild soreness may occur at the site of intramuscular administration


Thiamine toxicity is uncommon; as excesses are readily excreted, although long-term supplementation of amounts larger than 3 gram have been known to cause toxicity. Oral mouse LD50 = 8224 mg/kg, oral rat LD50 = 3710 mg/kg.


No hazardous drug interactions have been reported. Vitamin B1 acts synergistically with other vitamins of the B-complex group and its potential for causing adverse effects is considerably reduced.

Food Interaction

No interactions found.

Thiamine Disease Interaction

Moderate: renal impairment, malabsorption

Elimination Route

Absorbed mainly from duodenum, by both active and passive processes

Pregnancy & Breastfeeding use

The drug may be given safely to neonates, children, pregnant and lactating women and elderly patients.


There is no absolute contraindication but the risk of anaphylaxis is increased by repeated parenteral administration. Mild allergic phenomena, such as sneezing or mild asthma are warning signs that further may give rise to anaphylactic shock. To avoid this possibility it is advisable to start a second course of injection with a dose considerably lower than that previously used. Because of the above, vitamin B1 injection should not be given intravenously except in the case of comatose patients. Once thiamine deficiency is corrected there is no need for parenteral administration or for the administration of amounts in excess of daily requirement.

Storage Condition

Thiamine injection should be protected from light and moisture.

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What is Thiamine used for?

Thiamine is used to treat beriberi tingling and numbness in feet and hands, muscle loss, and poor reflexes caused by a lack of Thiamine in the diet and to treat and prevent Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome tingling and numbness in hands and feet, memory loss, confusion caused by a lack of Thiamine in the diet.

How safe is Thiamine?

Thiamine is generally safe. Very high doses may cause stomach upset.

What are the common side effects of Thiamine?

Side effects of Thiamine are include:

  • warmth
  • severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis)
  • skin discoloration
  • sweating
  • restlessness
  • rapid swelling of the skin
  • itching
  • hives
  • fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema)
  • weakness
  • tightness of the throat
  • nausea

Who should not take Thiamine?

You should not use Thiamine if you have ever had an allergic reaction to it.

Can I take Thiamine daily?

The recommended daily amount of Thiamine for adult men is 1.2 milligrams and for adult women is 1.1 milligrams.

How long should I take Thiamine for?

Thiamine use daily for one month. A complete and balanced diet should follow.

What happens if I stop taking Thiamine?

if you stop taking Thiamine it can lead to serious health conditions including beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

Is Thiamine safe during pregnancy?

Thiamine is generally safe to take during pregnancy.Thiamine is only recommended for use during pregnancy when benefit outweighs risk.

Is Thiamine good for pregnancy?

Thiamine is essential during pregnancy because it supports your baby's brain development and enables you and your baby to convert carbohydrates into energy.

Is Thiamine safe during breastfeeding?

Thiamine is usually safe to take while you're breastfeeding. It passes into your breast milk, but it's not harmful to your baby.

When should I take Thiamine?

Thiamine tablets are usually taken once a day. Doses of 25-100 mg are sufficient to prevent mild deficiency. You can take the tablets at whatever time of day you find easiest to remember, either before or after meals.

What happens if I get too much of Thiamine?

If I get too much of Thiamine it can cause hypertension or high blood pressure.

Does Thiamine increase heart rate?

Yes,Thiamine may increased heart rate.

Is Thiamine good for anxiety?

Thiamine intake to an improvement in anxiety levels for those with generalized anxiety disorder.

Can I drink alcohol with Thiamine?

It's best to avoid alcohol if you are taking Thiamine for a vitamin B1 deficiency.

Does Thiamine help hangovers?

Thiamine can play a major role in the functioning of brain and nervous system and aid your body in getting over the hangover easily.

When should I stop taking Thiamine?

If the patient has been abstinent for 6 weeks or more and has regained adequate nutritional status then should you stop taking Thiamine.

What does Thiamine do in the brain?

Thiamine is an essential cofactor for several enzymes involved in brain cell metabolism that are required for the production of precursors for several important cell components as well as for the generation of the energy–supplying molecule ATP.

Can I drive after taking Thiamine?

This medicine is not known to affect the ability to drive or use machines.If you feel you may be affected, do not drive or use machines and speak to your doctor.

Can Thiamine cause headaches?

Low Thiamine intake leads to increased risk of the Wernicke-Korsakoff and frequent headaches.
*** Taking medicines without doctor's advice can cause long-term problems.