What is Urinalysis?

Urinalysis is the analysis of a person's urine for various components like bacteria, cells, proteins and other chemicals. It is used to diagnose or monitor diseases and medical conditions, as well as to determine if a person is at risk for developing health problems.

Why is Urinalysis Done?

Urinalysis can be used to detect specific diseases or medical conditions, such as diabetes, kidney disease, bladder infection, liver disease, and even cancer. It can also provide important information to help diagnose and monitor other medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

When is Urinalysis Done?

Urinalysis may be done as part of a physical examination, to diagnose or monitor an existing medical condition, or to screen for the presence of drugs or alcohol. Urinalysis may also be done prior to surgery, at regular checkups, or when a person is admitted to the hospital.

How to Prepare For a Urinalysis

If your doctor orders a urinalysis, you will need to collect a sample of your urine in a sterile container provided by your doctor's office or at a pharmacy. It is important to follow the instructions for collecting the sample correctly, if not, this could lead to an inaccurate result.

  • Do not collect the sample later than suggested.
  • Do not eat or drink anything other than water for 2-4 hours before collection.
  • If you are a female, wipe from front to back.
  • Clean the genital area before collecting the sample.

Types of Urinalysis

There are several types of urinalysis tests available, which may include:

  • Screening or qualitative tests: This test looks for the presence of certain components, such as glucose, ketones, proteins, nitrites, or red blood cells in the urine. It does not measure the amount of these components.
  • Quantitative tests: This test measures the amount of certain components in the urine, such as proteins, glucose, ketones, blood, or nitrogen.
  • Cultural tests: This test is done to culture bacteria in the urine and determine if an infection is present.
  • Sensititvity tests: This test is used to determine the best treatment for a urinary tract or bladder infection.

Risks of a Urinalysis

Urinalysis is a very safe and simple procedure. There are no risks associated with it as it is a non-invasive procedure. However, it is important to ask your doctor about any special instructions for collecting the sample.


Urinalysis is a very simple yet helpful tool for diagnosing and monitoring medical conditions. It can provide invaluable information to help diagnose a wide range of medical problems, including urinary infection, diabetes, kidney disease, liver disease, and even cancer. It is a safe and simple procedure with no risks associated with it.