Treatment resistant Reemerging Influenza

Treatment Resistant Reemerging Influenza

Influenza has been a major public health challenge for centuries, causing significant illness and death worldwide. The emergence of treatment-resistant strains of influenza is a growing threat and necessitates the ongoing development of better treatments and prevention strategies. This article explores the incidence, mechanisms, and implications of treatment-resistant reemerging influenza.


Resistance to antiviral medications is increasing among influenza viruses and can occur in any of the three types of influenza, A, B, and C. The most common treatment-resistant strain is influenza A, which is responsible for seasonal epidemics and pandemics. In recent years, the predominant strains of influenza A have been H1N1 and H3N2. Resistance to the neuraminidase inhibitor antiviral medications such as oseltamivir and zanamivir continues to be a concern with both H1N1 and H3N2.

Mechanisms of Resistance

Resistance to antivirals is due primarily to mutations in the viral neuraminidase, which is responsible for releasing newly formed viral particles from host cells. Mutations can result in reduced binding of the drug to the virus, increased drug efflux from the virus, or reduced enzymatic activity resulting in reduced viral replication.


The implications of treatment-resistant influenza are serious. Treatment-resistant strains can spread more quickly and cause more severe illness due to an increased pathogenicity. Additionally, treatment-resistant strains cannot be treated with existing antivirals, making traditional therapies ineffective. This can result in longer periods of illness, increased risk of complications, and increased healthcare costs.


In order to reduce the risk of treatment-resistant influenza, it is important to practice good respiratory hygiene, such as covering the nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing, avoiding contact with sick people, and washing hands regularly.

  • Get a flu shot every year to reduce the risk of catching a strain of influenza for which you might not be vaccinated.
  • Take preventive antiviral medications if recommended by your healthcare provider.
  • Avoid contact with people who are ill, particularly those who show signs of a respiratory illness.
  • Wash your hands often and properly with warm water and soap.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unclean hands.
  • Clean and disinfect surfaces and objects touched by a person with the flu.
  • Get adequate rest and nutrition to help the body fight infection.