Mobilization of autologous hematopoietic progenitor cells into the peripheral blood for collection by leukapheresis

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Mobilization of Autologous Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells into the Peripheral Blood for Collection by Leukapheresis

Leukapheresis is a form of apheresis which is a method for collecting a desired fraction of cells from the blood. In leukapheresis, white blood cells are specifically targeted, which is beneficial for diseases or conditions that involve an excess of white blood cells, such as leukemia or lymphoproliferative disorders. This method makes it possible to manipulate and modify the composition of white blood cells, or to collect them from a donor patient in order to use them for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

In order for leukapheresis to be successful, cells must first be mobilized into the peripheral blood. The mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells, which are the cell precursors for all of the blood and bone marrow cell types, is vital in the successful collection of leukapheresis cells. Mobilization occurs when white blood cells are released from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood stream.

Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and plerixafor are two currently approved agents which are used for hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization. While both are proven to be successful, there are some distinguishing characteristics between the two. G-CSF is the more commonly used method but can cause common side effects like bone pain, fever, and fatigue due to its action on white blood cells. It also only works on a subset of patients, has a long timeline for mobilization, and is associated with increased risk for infection. Plerixafor, on the other hand, has proven useful in mobilizing hematopoietic progenitor cells in shorter amounts of time, with minimal side effects. Unlike G-CSF, it is also the only available option for patients with high body mass index or poor peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilization with G-CSF.

Although both G-CSF and plerixafor are successful at mobilizing autologous progenitor cells into the peripheral blood for collection by leukapheresis, efficacy is based on individual patient characteristics and treatment tailored to the patient is essential.

Advantages of Mobilization of Autologous Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells for Leukapheresis

  • Short timeline for mobilization.
  • Minimal side effects.
  • Can be used for patients with high body mass index and other conditions that may make G-CSF mobilization difficult.
  • Treatment can be tailored to individual patient characteristics for greater efficacy.