Infection and inflammatory reaction due to internal prosthetic device

Infection and Inflammatory Response due to Internal Prosthetic Devices

Implantation of an internal prosthetic device involves interaction of the implant with the host's biological environment. As a result, an inflammatory reaction can occur at the implant-host interface that can ultimately lead to infection. This article will explore the factors that can contribute to infection and inflammatory response due to internal prosthetic devices.

Types of Inflammation

When a foreign body such as an internal prosthetic device interacts with the host's body, there are typically two types of responses that can occur. The first type of response is a host-mediated response, in which the host immune system recognizes the device as a foreign entity and sets in motion a series of inflammatory responses. The second type of response is an implant-mediated response, in which the materials that make up the device or surrounding tissue illicit a response, such as oxidative stress.


While the inflammatory response is necessary to protect the host from infection, it also can be a source of infection. This can occur if the inflammation process leads to a breakdown of the device's inner surface, allowing for bacteria or viruses to attach and grow on the implant surface. Infection can also occur through infected tissue or skin cells that are in contact with the device.

Risk Factors

There are certain factors that can increase the risk of infection and inflammatory response due to internal prosthetic devices, including:

  • Patient health - Poor patient health may increase the inflammatory response and risk of infection.
  • Surgery - Surgery to implant the device can increase the risk of infection by introducing bacteria to the site.
  • Device material - Some materials that make up a device may cause an increased inflammatory response or increased risk of infection.
  • Device design - Poorly designed implant surfaces can allow bacteria to attach more easily and increase the risk of infection.
  • Poor sterilization techniques - Poor sterilization can lead to the introduction of bacteria or viruses to the site of implantation.

Prevention and Treatment

In order to prevent and treat infection and inflammatory response due to internal prosthetic devices, it is important to use proper sterilization techniques, proper material selection, and design implant surfaces that are not prone to bacterial attachment. It is also important to monitor the patient’s health and bring any suspicious symptoms to a doctor’s attention right away.