In situ BCG-refractory Bladder carcinoma

In Situ BCG-Refractory Bladder Carcinoma

In situ BCG-refractory bladder carcinoma is a type of bladder cancer that is resistant to bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) treatment. This cancer is also known as carcinomatous cystitis, and accounts for about 1-5% of all bladder cancers diagnosed. It has a worse prognosis than other types of bladder cancer and is often associated with other forms of malignancy. It is usually first found on examination by a clinician.

The main factor for the development of BCG-refractory bladder carcinoma is the presence of specific genetic mutations that make the cancer cells resistant to the BCG vaccine. The risk factors for this cancer include age, smoking, and chronic bladder inflammation due to bladder infections, delayed or failed healing from BCG instillation, and radiation therapy. People with BCG-refractory bladder carcinoma usually have a higher risk of recurrence and disease progression. The progression of the cancer can be stopped if the cancer is caught and treated early.

Symptoms of BCG-Refractory Bladder Carcinoma

Symptoms of BCG-refractory bladder carcinoma can include:

  • Blood in the urine
  • Painful urination
  • Frequent urination
  • Urinary urgency or a feeling that the bladder is not completely emptied after urination
  • Incontinence
  • In men, pain or discomfort in the pelvic area

Diagnosis of BCG-Refractory Bladder Carcinoma

To diagnose BCG-refractory bladder carcinoma, a doctor will perform a physical exam and take a detailed medical history. Diagnostic tests may also be performed such as a cystoscopy, CT scan, MRI, and biopsy. During a cystoscopy, a doctor will insert a camera into the bladder to check for any abnormalities. During the biopsy, a doctor will take a sample of the bladder tissue to examine in a lab.

Treatment of BCG-Refractory Bladder Carcinoma

Treatment of BCG-refractory bladder carcinoma typically includes chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Surgery may also be an option if the cancer has not spread to other parts of the body. The main goal of treatment is to control the disease and prevent it from progressing.

The prognosis for this disease depends on the stage of the cancer and the overall health of the patient. Early detection is key to improving the chances of a good outcome.