Hypertension Arterial

Overview of High Blood Pressure (Hypertension Arterial)

High blood pressure is defined as a consistent reading of 140/90 or above, and is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases in the world. It is a major risk factor for heart attack, stroke, and various other cardiovascular and renal diseases. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, occurs when the force of the blood against your artery walls is too high.

Hypertension is caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. These can include: overweight/obesity, smoking, lack of physical activity, unhealthy diet, stress, certain medications, excessive alcohol consumption, and family history of hypertension.

There are several different types of hypertension including: primary hypertension (essential) – the most common form, due to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, and secondary hypertension – due to other medical conditions or underlying diseases.

The most common symptoms of hypertension include headaches, dizziness, chest pain, and shortness of breath. There may also be neck pain, tinnitus, fatigue, vision issues, and nosebleeds.

Diagnosis and Treatment of High Blood Pressure

It is important to have regular blood pressure checkups to diagnose hypertension. Blood pressure readings are taken in the upper arm and measured with a sphygmomanometer. If the readings are consistently high, it is important to take steps to lower your blood pressure to reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, and other cardiovascular and renal diseases.

Treatment of hypertension may include lifestyle modifications such as healthy eating, regular physical activity, stress reduction, and quitting smoking. If lifestyle modifications are not enough, medication may be needed to help control high blood pressure. Common medications used include ACE inhibitors, ARBs, calcium channel blockers, beta blockers, and diuretics.

Prevention of Hypertension

The best way to prevent or manage hypertension is to make lifestyle modifications. These modifications include: eating a healthy diet; exercising; limiting alcohol and caffeine; avoiding smoking; reducing stress; monitoring sodium intake; and taking medications as prescribed.


High blood pressure is a serious condition and can lead to serious health complications. It is important to get regular checkups to monitor your blood pressure and make sure it is in a healthy range. Making lifestyle modifications such as eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise can help reduce the risk of hypertension and reduce the effects of high blood pressure.