Enflurane Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Food Interaction and all others data.

Enflurane is a halogenated inhalational anesthetic initially approved by the FDA in 1972. Since this date, it has been withdrawn from the US market. Unlike its other inhalational anesthetic counterparts including isoflurane and halothane, enflurane is known to induce seizure activity. In addition, it is known to cause increased cardio depressant effects when compared to other inhaled anesthetics.

Enflurane rapidly induces anesthesia via the stimulation of inhibitory neural channels and the inhibition of excitatory neural channels. Muscle relaxation, obtundation of pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes, and lowering of blood pressure are some of the main pharmacodynamic effects of this drug. Enflurane also decreases cardiac muscle contractility.

High concentrations of enflurane may lead to uterine relaxation and increase the risk of uterine bleeding during delivery. Rare but clinically significant elevations in ALT may indicate hepatoxicity from the use of enflurane. In some susceptible patients, enflurane may cause malignant hyperthermia.

Trade Name Enflurane
Availability Discontinued
Generic Enflurane
Enflurane Other Names Alyrane, Efrane, Enflurane, Enflurano, Enfluranum, Methylflurether
Formula C3H2ClF5O
Weight Average: 184.492
Monoisotopic: 183.971433418
Protein binding

The plasma protein binding for enflurane is 97%.

Groups Approved, Investigational, Vet approved
Therapeutic Class
Available Country
Last Updated: September 19, 2023 at 7:00 am


Enflurane is a halogenated inhalational anesthetic agent used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia and for analgesia during labor and delivery.

Enflurane may be used for both the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. It can also be used to induce analgesia for vaginal delivery. Low concentrations of enflurane can also be used as an adjunct to general anesthetic drugs during delivery by Cesarean section.

Enflurane is also used to associated treatment for these conditions: Analgesia, General Anesthesia, Cesarean Section

How Enflurane works

The mechanism of action of enflurane is not completely established. Studies on rats indicate that enflurane binds to GABAA and glycine receptors, causing depressant effects at the ventral neural horn. It has been reported that 30% of the central nervous system depressant effects on the spinal cord after enflurane is administered are caused by the (GABA-A) receptor while binding to glycine receptors is responsible for about 20 % of the depressant effects. The relevance of these findings to humans is unknown. Other studies have found that enflurane binds to the calcium channels in the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum causing cardio depressant effects. Other studies support that this drug potentiates glycine receptors, which results in central nervous system depressant effects.


The LD50 of enflurane in rats is 14000 ppm/3 hour(s) when inhaled. There is limited information in the literature about enflurane overdose. Hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and neurotoxicity are expected. One report in the literature of an enflurane overdose describes an accidental fatal overdose in a 21-year-old male. About 72 hours after death, high amounts of enflurane were found in the brain, blood, and subcutaneous fat. Gas chromatographic studies revealed enflurane concentrations of 350 mg/l-1 in the brain, 130 mg/l-1 in the blood, and 100 mg/l-1 in the subcutaneous fat.

In the event of an enflurane overdose, immediately stop the administration of enflurane, establish a patent airway, and administer pure oxygen by assisted or controlled ventilation.

Food Interaction

No interactions found.

Volume of Distribution

Enflurane distributes to the brain, blood, and subcutaneous fat.

Elimination Route

Enflurane is rapidly absorbed into the circulation through the lungs. The minimum alveolar concentration is oxygen is 1.68%.

Elimination Route

Metabolism accounts for 5-9% of enflurane elimination, sometimes causing nephrotoxicity. Excretion through the skin is believed to be minimal.

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