Pharmacilin

Pharmacilin Capsule

Pharmacilin inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to 1 or more of the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) which in turn inhibit the final transpeptidation step of peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell walls. Bacteria eventually lyse due to ongoing activity of cell wall autolytic enzymes (autolysins and murein hydrolases) while cell wall assembly is arrested.

Pharmacilin is a penicillin beta-lactam antibiotic used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually gram-positive, organisms. The name "penicillin" can either refer to several variants of penicillin available, or to the group of antibiotics derived from the penicillins. Pharmacilin has in vitro activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The bactericidal activity of Pharmacilin results from the inhibition of cell wall synthesis and is mediated through Pharmacilin binding to penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). Pharmacilin is stable against hydrolysis by a variety of beta-lactamases, including penicillinases, and cephalosporinases and extended spectrum beta-lactamases.

Pharmacilin is a penicillin beta-lactam antibiotic used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually gram-positive, organisms. The name "penicillin" can either refer to several variants of penicillin available, or to the group of antibiotics derived from the penicillins. Pharmacilin has in vitro activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The bactericidal activity of Pharmacilin results from the inhibition of cell wall synthesis and is mediated through Pharmacilin binding to penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). Pharmacilin is stable against hydrolysis by a variety of beta-lactamases, including penicillinases, and cephalosporinases and extended spectrum beta-lactamases.

Uses

Pharmacilin is used for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated organism listed below:

  • Infections of the Genitourinary Tract Including Gonorrhea: E. coli, P. mirabilis, enterococci, Shigella, S. typhosa and other Salmonella, and nonpenicillinase-producing N. gononhoeae.
  • Infections of the Respiratory Tract: Nonpenicillinase-producing H. influenzae and staphylococci, and streptococci including streptococcus pneumoniae.
  • Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Shigella, S. typhosa and other Salmonella, E. coli, P. mirabilis, and enterococci.
  • Meningitis: O. Meningitides.

Bacteriology studies to determine the causative organisms and their sensetivity to ampicillin should be performed. Therapy may be instituted prior to the results of susceptibility testing.

Pharmacilin is also used to associated treatment for these conditions: Bacterial Infections, Bloodstream Infections, Endocarditis, Gastrointestinal Infections, Genitourinary tract infection, Infection, Infection caused by eikenella corrodens, Listeria infection, Meningitis, Bacterial, Pertussis, Respiratory Tract Infections (RTI), Salmonella, Salmonella Typhi Infection, Shigella, Skin Infections, Bacterial, Subcutaneous bacterial infection, Urinary Tract Infection, Perinatal group B streptococcus, Susceptible Bacterial Infections

How Pharmacilin works

By binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, Pharmacilin inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that Pharmacilin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.

Pharmacilin

Trade Name Pharmacilin
Availability Prescription only
Generic Ampicillin
Ampicillin Other Names ABPC, Aminobenzylpenicillin, Ampicilina, Ampicillin, Ampicillin acid, Ampicilline, Ampicillinum
Related Drugs amoxicillin, prednisone, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, cephalexin, metronidazole, azithromycin, clindamycin, ceftriaxone, levofloxacin
Weight 250mg
Type Capsule
Formula C16H19N3O4S
Weight Average: 349.405
Monoisotopic: 349.109626801
Groups Approved, Vet approved
Therapeutic Class Broad spectrum penicillins
Manufacturer Pharmadesh Laboratories Ltd
Available Country Bangladesh
Last Updated: June 7, 2022 at 8:54 pm

Structure

Pharmacilin
Ampicillin Structure

Dosage

Pharmacilin dosage

Intra-articular:Supplement in systemic therapy for treatment of susceptible infections-

  • Adult: 500 mg daily.
  • Child: <10 yr Half of adult routine dosage.

Intraperitoneal:

Supplement in systemic therapy for treatment of susceptible infections-

  • Adult: 500 mg daily.
  • Child: <10 yr Half of adult routine dosage.

Intrapleural:

Supplement in systemic therapy for treatment of susceptible infections-

  • Adult: 500 mg daily.
  • Child: <10 yr Half of adult routine dosage

Intravenous:

Meningitis-

  • Adult: 2 gm 6 hrly.
  • Child: 150 mg/kg daily in divided doses.

Intrapartum prophylaxis against group B Streptoccocal infection in neonates-

  • Adult: Initially, 2 gm via IV inj followed by 1 gm 4 hrly until delivery.

Oral:

Biliary tract infections, Bronchitis, Endocarditis, Gastroenteritis, Listeriosis, Otitis media, Perinatal streptococcal infections, Peritonitis-

  • Adult: 0.25-1 gm 6 hrly.
  • Child: <10 yr Half of adult routine dosage.

Typhoid and paratyphoid fever-

  • Adult: 1-2 gm 6 hrly for 2 wk in acute infections, and 4-12 wk in carriers.

Uncomplicated gonorrhoea-

  • Adult: 2 gm with 1 gm of probenecid as single dose, recommended to be repeated in female patients.

Urinary tract infections-

  • Adult: 500 mg 8 hrly.

Parenteral:

Susceptible infections-

  • Adult: 500 mg 6 hrly, via IM or slow IV inj over 3-5 min or by infusion.
  • Child: <10 yr Half of adult routine dosage.

Septicaemia-

  • Adult: 150-200 mg/kg daily. Initiate with IV admin for at least 3 days, then continue with IM inj 3-4 hrly. Continue treatment for at least 48-72 hr after the patient has become asymptomatic or when there is evidence of bacterial eradication. Recommended treatment duration for infections caused by group-A β-haemolytic streptococci: At least 10-days, to prevent occurrence of acute rheumatic fever or acute glomerulonephritis.
  • Child: Same as adult dose.

Should be taken on an empty stomach. Take 1 hr before or 2 hr after meals.

Intramuscular: Add 1.5 mL water for inj to 500 mg vial contents.

Intravenous: Dissolve 500 mg in 10 mL water for inj. May be added to infusion fluids or injected, suitably diluted into the drip tube.

Intra-articular: Dissolve 500 mg in up to 5 mL of water for inj or sterile procaine HCl 0.5% soln.

Intraperitoneal: Dissolve 500 mg in up to 10 mL water for inj.

Intrapleural: Dissolve 500 mg in 5-10 mL water for inj.

Side Effects

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, erythematous maculo-papular rashes, sore mouth, black/hairy tongue, rash, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, angioedema, fever, joint pains, serum sickness-like symptoms, haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, neutropenia, coagulation disorders, prolonged bleeding time and prothrombin time, CNS toxicity (e.g. convulsions); paraesthesia, nephropathy, interstitial nephritis, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, moderate and transient increase in transaminases, Anaphylaxis, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD).

Precaution

Patient with history of β-lactam allergy. During renal impairment, Pregnancy and lactation.

Interaction

May reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptives. May alter INR while on warfarin and phenindione. May reduce the efficacy of oral typhoid vaccines. May reduce the excretion of methotrexate. Reduced excretion with probenecid and sulfinpyrazone, resulting to increased risk of toxicity. Allopurinol increases ampicillin-induced skin reactions. Reduced absorption with chloroquine. Bacteriostatic antibacterials (e.g. erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline) may interfere with the bactericidal action of ampicillin.

Food Interaction

  • Take on an empty stomach.

[Moderate] ADJUST DOSING INTERVAL: Certain penicillins may exhibit reduced gastrointestinal absorption in the presence of food.

The therapeutic effect of the antimicrobial may be reduced.



MANAGEMENT: The interacting penicillin should be administered one hour before or two hours after meals.

Penicillin V and amoxicillin are not affected by food and may be given without regard to meals.

Pharmacilin Hypertension interaction

[Moderate] Parenteral ampicillin sodium contains approximately 67 to 71 mg (2.9 to 3.1 mEq) of sodium per each gram of ampicillin activity.

The combination, ampicillin-sulbactam, contains approximately 115 mg (5 mEq) of sodium per 1.5 gram of total drug.

The sodium content should be considered when these products are used in patients with conditions that may require sodium restriction, such as congestive heart failure, hypertension, and fluid retention.

Pharmacilin Drug Interaction

Unknown: amoxicillin / clavulanate, amoxicillin / clavulanate, diphenhydramine, diphenhydramine, ciprofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, furosemide, furosemide, acetaminophen, acetaminophen, acetaminophen, acetaminophen, cyanocobalamin, cyanocobalamin, ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid, cholecalciferol, cholecalciferol, ondansetron, ondansetron

Pharmacilin Disease Interaction

Major: colitis

Moderate: mononucleosis, sodium, renal dysfunction, hemodialysis

Elimination Route

Pharmacilin is excreted largely unchanged in the urine.

Pregnancy & Breastfeeding use

Pregnancy Category B. Either animal-reproduction studies have not demonstrated a fetal risk but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women or animal-reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect (other than a decrease in fertility) that was not confirmed in controlled studies in women in the 1st trimester (and there is no evidence of a risk in later trimesters).

Contraindication

Hypersensitivity to ampicillin and other penicillins.

Special Warning

Renal Impairment: CrCl<10: Dose reduction or increase in dose interval.

Acute Overdose

Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Management: Symptomatic and supportive treatment. May be removed from the circulation by haemodialysis.

Storage Condition

Store between 20-25° C. Reconstituted oral susp: Store between 2-8° C (discard after 14 days).

Innovators Monograph

Pharmacilin contains Ampicillin see full prescribing information from innovator Pharmacilin Monograph, Pharmacilin MSDS, Pharmacilin FDA label

FAQ

What is Pharmacilin used for?

Pharmacilin is an antibiotic used to prevent and treat a number of bacterial infections, such as respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis, salmonellosis, and endocarditis. It may also be used to prevent group B streptococcal infection in newborns. Pharmacilin may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

How safe is Pharmacilin?

In accordance with other studies, Pharmacilin was well tolerated, with mild diarrhea reported in 14% and skin rash in 3% of patients. Thus, Pharmacilin appears to provide effective and safe therapy for the treatment of infections caused by aerobic and anaerobic pathogens.

How does Pharmacilin work?

Pharmacilin works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls. Pharmacilin allows holes to appear in the bacterial cell walls and this kills the bacteria causing the infection. Pharmacilin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which means it kills a wide variety of different types of bacteria.

What are the common side effects of Pharmacilin?

Common side effects of Pharmacilin are include:

  • acute inflammatory skin eruption (erythema multiforme)
  • redness and peeling of the skin (exfoliative dermatitis)
  • rash
  • hives
  • fever
  • seizure
  • black hairy tongue
  • diarrhea
  • inflammation of the small intestine and colon
  • inflammation of the tongue
  • nausea
  • yeast infection in the mouth (oral candidiasis/thrush)
  • swelling or inflammation of the large intestine/colon
  • inflammation of the mouth
  • vomiting
  • low white blood cell count (agranulocytosis)
  • anemia
  • low red blood cell count (anemia)
  • high white blood cell count (eosinophilia)
  • reduction of white blood cells (leukopenia)
  • acute allergic reaction (anaphylaxis)
  • elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
  • inflammation in the kidney
  • noisy breathing
  • allergic reaction
  • headache
  • vaginal itching or discharge
  • dark urine
  • easy bruising or bleeding
  • persistent sore throat or fever

Is Pharmacilin safe during pregnancy?

Pharmacilin is considered safe during pregnancy. If Pharmacilin is used during pregnancy, the potential benefit of Pharmacilin for the mother should be weighed against the potential risk of side effects in the infant.

Is Pharmacilin safe during breastfeeding?

Pharmacilin is acceptable in nursing mothers.

Can I drink alcohol with Pharmacilin?

Yes, you can drink alcohol while taking the Pharmacilin. The alcohol will not stop Pharmacilin from working. Moderation is key. However, many health professionals will recommend you avoid alcohol to give your body the best chance possible to fight the infection.

Can I drive after taking Pharmacilin?

You should not drive or operate machinery if you're taking an antibiotic that makes you drowsy.

When is the best time to take Pharmacilin?

Take this Pharmacilin by mouth usually 4 times a day (every 6 hours), or as directed by your doctor. Take Pharmacilin on an empty stomach (1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal) with a full glass of water.

Is Pharmacilin taken on an empty stomach?

Take Pharmacilin on an empty stomach, at least 30 minutes before or 2 hours after a meal.

Does Pharmacilin make me sleepy?

Pharmacilin oral capsule doesn't cause drowsiness, but it can cause other side effects.

How long does Pharmacilin take to work?

Pharmacilin will start working right away to fight the infection in your body. You should start to feel better after 2 days, but continue to take the full course of your medication even if you feel like you don't need it anymore.

How long does Pharmacilin stay in my system?

Pharmacilin stays in your body for up to 8 hours and is then removed when you urinate.

Do Pharmacilin keep working after I stop taking them?

It's important to complete the full course of antibiotics, even if you begin to feel better beforehand. Because if you discontinue the treatment early you may not eliminate enough bacteria, and the condition could re-occur, as surviving bacteria multiply.

Can I take Pharmacilin for a long time?

Use this Pharmacilin  for the full prescribed length of time, even if your symptoms quickly improve. Skipping doses can increase your risk of infection that is resistant to medication.

How long can I take Pharmacilin ?

Pharmacilin should be taken for 7 to 14 days.

Who should not take Pharmacilin?

You should not use Pharmacilin if you are allergic to Pharmacilin. Tell your doctor if you have ever had: diabetes, hay fever.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Take the Pharmacilin as soon as you can, but skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next dose. Do not take two doses at one time.

What happen if I take too much Pharmacilin?

Symptoms of an overdose of this drug can include upset stomach and diarrhea. If you think you've taken too much of this drug, call your doctor or local poison control center. If your symptoms are severe, call your doctor or go to the nearest emergency room right away.

What happen If I suddenly stop taking Pharmacilin?

If you stop taking the Pharmacilin suddenly or don't take it at all: Your bacterial infection may not get better. It may even get worse.

Will Pharmacilin affect my fertility?

Pharmacilin affect both the quantity and quality of sperm. They may reduce the number of sperm a man produces, and make the sperm he does produce swim more slowly.

Can Pharmacilin affect my kidneys?

The Pharmacilin observed after high doses of ampicillin caused renal failure by tubular obstruction.

Can Pharmacilin affects my liver?

Pharmacilin has been linked with idiosyncratic liver injury, but very rarely and in largely in isolated case reports.