Glycopyrrolate Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Food Interaction and all others data.

Glycopyrronium bromide is a quarternary ammonium antimuscarinic. It blocks acetylcholine at parasympathomimetic sites and induces smooth muscle relaxation. It also reduces gastric acid secretions and controls pharyngeal, tracheal and bronchial secretions. It antagonises muscarinic symptoms such as bronchorrhoea, bronchospasm, bradycardia and intestinal hypermotility induced by anticholinesterases.

Trade Name Glycopyrrolate
Availability Prescription only
Generic Glycopyrrolate
Related Drugs ProAir Digihaler, famotidine, pantoprazole, fentanyl, Pepcid, Protonix, lidocaine, Symbicort, ketamine, Breo Ellipta
Weight 0.2mg/ml, 1mg/5ml, 1mg, 1.5mg, 2mg, , 15.6mcg, 25mcg/ml, 2.4%
Type Injectable Solution, Intravenous Solution, Oral Solution, Oral Tablet, Inhalation Capsule, Inhalation Solution, Inhalation, Topical Pad, Glycopyrronium Cloth
Therapeutic Class Anticholinergics (antimuscarinics)/ Anti-spasmodics
Available Country United States
Last Updated: September 19, 2023 at 7:00 am


In Anesthesia:

  • As a pre-operative antimuscarinic agent to reduce salivary, tracheobronchial and pharyngeal sections and to reduce the acidity of the gastric contents.
  • As a pre-operative or intra-operative antimuscarinic to attenuate or prevent intraoperative bradycardia with the use of suxamethonium or due to cardiac vagal reflexes.
  • To protect against the peripheral muscarinic actions of anticholinesterases such as neostigmine and pyridostigmine, used to reverse residual neuromuscular blockade produced by non- depolarising muscle relaxants.

In Peptic Ulcer:

For use in adults as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of peptic ulcer when rapid anticholinergic effect is desired or when oral medication is not tolerated.

Hyperhidrosis, Sialorrhea, Cerebral palsy.


Glycopyrrolate dosage

For IM/IV administration-

Pre-Anaesthetic Use:

  • Adults:0.2 mg to 0.4 mg intravenously or intramuscularly before the induction of anesthesia. Alternatively, a dose of 0.004 to 0.005 mg/kg.
  • Children (1 month to 12 years of age): 0.004 to 0.008 mg/kg up. Larger doses may result in profound and prolonged antisialogogue effect which may be unpleasant for the patient.

Intraoperative Use:

  • Adults:A single dose of 0.2 to 0.4 mg (or 0.004 to 0.005 mg/kg) by intravenous injection should be used.
  • Children: (1 month to 12 years of age) - A single dose of 0.004 to 0.008 mg/kg by intravenous injection should be used. This dose may be repeated if necessary.

Reversal of Neuromuscular Blockade:

  • Adults:0.2 mg intravenously per 1 mg neostigmine or the equivalent dose of pyridostigmine.
  • Children (1 month to 12 years of age) - 0.01 mg/kg intravenously with 0.05 mg/kg neostigmine or the equivalent dose of pyridostigmine. Supotaria may be administered simultaneously from the same syringe with the anticholinesterase; greater cardiovascular stability results from this method of administration.

For oral administration-

Initiate dosing at 0.02 mg/kg orally three times daily and titrate in increments of 0.02 mg/kg every 5-7 days based on therapeutic response and adverse reactions. The maximum recommended dosage is 0.1 mg/kg three times daily not to exceed 1.5-3 mg per dose based upon weight.

During the four-week titration period, dosing can be increased with the recommended dose titration schedule while ensuring that theanticholinergicadverse events are tolerable. Prior to each increase in dose, review the tolerability of the current dose level with the patient's caregiver.

Glycopyrrolate should be dosed at least one hour before or two hours after meals. The presence of high fat food reduces the oral bioavailability of Glycopyrrolate if taken shortly after a meal

Side Effects

Anticholinergic symptoms (mydriasis, hyperthermia, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmia), Dry mouth, Dry skin, Anhidrosis, Flushing, Blurred vision, Cycloplegia, Photophobia, Palpitation, Xerophthalmia, Constipation, Urinary retention


Antimuscarinics should be used with caution (due to increased risk of side effects) in Down's syndrome, in children and in the elderly.

They should also be used with caution in gastro-esophageal reflux disease, diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, acute myocardial infarction, hypertension, conditions characterized by tachycardia (including hyperthyroidism, cardiac insufficiency, cardiac surgery) because of the increase in heart rate produced by their administration, coronary artery disease and cardiac arrhythmias, pyrexia (due to inhibition of sweating), pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Because of prolongation of renal elimination, repeated or large doses of glycopyrronium bromide should be avoided in patients with uremia.

Large doses of quaternary anticholinergic compounds have been shown to block end plate nicotinic receptors. This should be considered before using glycopyrrolate in patients with myasthenia gravis.

It is known that the administration of anticholinergic agents during inhalation anesthesia can result in ventricular arrhythmias.

Lactation: Excretion in milk unknown; use with caution


Decreases levodopa effects. Effects may be enhanced by using drugs with antimuscarinic properties or MAOIs concurrently. May antagonise the Gl effects of cisapride, metoclopramide and dompeidone.

Glycopyrrolate Alcohol interaction


Use of anticholinergic agents with alcohol may result in sufficient impairment of attention so as to render driving and operating machinery more hazardous.

In addition, the potential for abuse may be increased with the combination.

The mechanism of interaction is not established but may involve additive depressant effects on the central nervous system.

No effect of oral propantheline or atropine on blood alcohol levels was observed in healthy volunteers when administered before ingestion of a standard ethanol load.

However, one study found impairment of attention in subjects given atropine 0.5 mg or glycopyrrolate 1 mg in combination with alcohol.

Alcohol should generally be avoided during therapy with anticholinergic agents.

Patients should be counseled to avoid activities requiring mental alertness until they know how these agents affect them.

Glycopyrrolate Hypertension interaction

[Minor] Cardiovascular effects of anticholinergics may exacerbate hypertension.

Therapy with anticholinergic agents should be administered cautiously in patients with hypertension.

Pregnancy & Breastfeeding use

Pregnancy Category B. Animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women OR Animal studies have shown an adverse effect, but adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in any trimester.


Angle-closure glaucoma; myasthenia gravis (large doses of quaternary ammonium compounds have been shown to block end plate nicotinic receptors); paralytic ileus; pyloric stenosis; prostatic enlargement. Anticholinesterase-antimuscarinic combinations such as neostigmine plus glycopyrronium should be avoided in patients with a prolonged QT interval.

Innovators Monograph

You find simplified version here Glycopyrrolate

*** Taking medicines without doctor's advice can cause long-term problems.