Epsal Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Food Interaction and all others data.

Magnesium is the second most plentiful cation of the intracellular fluids. It is essential for the activity of many enzyme systems and plays an important role with regard to neurochemical transmission and muscular excitability. Deficits are accompanied by a variety of structural and functional disturbances.

Magnesium sulfate is a small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. Magnesium sulfate is gaining popularity as an initial treatment in the management of various dysrhythmias, particularly torsades de pointes, and dyrhythmias secondary to TCA overdose or digitalis toxicity.

Trade Name Epsal
Generic Magnesium Sulfate
Magnesium Sulfate Other Names Magnesium sulfate (1:1), Magnesium sulphate, magnesium(II) sulfate, Magnesiumsulfat, MgSO4
Formula MgO4S
Weight Average: 120.368
Monoisotopic: 119.936771076
Protein binding


Groups Approved, Investigational, Vet approved
Therapeutic Class Oral electrolytes preparations, Other laxative preparations, Specific mineral preparations
Available Country United States
Last Updated: September 19, 2023 at 7:00 am


Magnesium sulfate injection is used for the following conditions:

Convulsions (treatment) - Intravenous Magnesium sulfate injection is used for immediate control of life-threatening convulsions in the treatment of severe toxemias (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia) of pregnancy and in the treatment of acute nephritis in children.

Hypomagnesemia (prophylaxis and treatment) - Magnesium sulfate injection is used for replacement therapy in magnesium deficiency, especially in acute hypomagnesemia accompanied by signs of tetany similar to those of hypocalcemia.

Magnesium sulfate injection is also used to prevent or treat magnesium deficiency in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition.

Tetany, uterine (treatment) - Magnesium sulfate injection is used for uterine tetany as a myometrial relaxant.

Epsal is also used to associated treatment for these conditions: Constipation, Convulsions, Hypomagnesemia, Torsades de Pointes, Barium poisoning, Severe Exacerbation of asthma, Bowel preparation therapy, Soaking aid for minor sprains and bruises

How Epsal works

Magnesium is the second most plentiful cation of the intracellular fluids. It is essential for the activity of many enzyme systems and plays an important role with regard to neurochemical transmission and muscular excitability. Magnesium sulfate reduces striated muscle contractions and blocks peripheral neuromuscular transmission by reducing acetylcholine release at the myoneural junction. Additionally, Magnesium inhibits Ca2+ influx through dihydropyridine-sensitive, voltage-dependent channels. This accounts for much of its relaxant action on vascular smooth muscle.


Epsal dosage

Intramuscular:Adults and older children: For severe hypomagnesemia, 1 to 5 g (2 to 10 mLof 50% solution) daily in divided doses; administration is repeated daily until serum levels have returned to normal. If deficiency is not severe, 1 g (2 mL of 50% solution) can be given once or twice daily. Serum magnesium levels should serve as a guide to continued dosage.

Intravenous:1 to 4 g magnesium sulfate (magnesium sulfate (magnesium sulfate injection) injection) may be given intravenously in 10% to 20% solution, but only with great caution; the rate should not exceed 1.5 mL of 10% solution or equivalent per minute until relaxation is obtained.

Intravenous Infusion:4 g in 250 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection at a rate not exceeding 3 mL per minute.

Usual Dose Range:1 to 40 g daily.

Electrolyte Replenisher:Intramuscular 1 to 2 g in 50% solution four times a day until serum magnesium is within normal limits.

Usual Pediatric Dose:Intramuscular 20 to 40 mg per kg of body weight in a 20% solution repeated as necessary.

For Eclampsia:Initially 1 to 2 g in 25% or 50% solution is given intramuscularly. Subsequently, 1 g is given every 30 minutes until relief is obtained. The blood pressure should be monitored after each injection.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.

Side Effects

Flushing, sweating, sharply lowered blood pressure, hypothermia, stupor and ultimately, respiratory depression.


LD50 = 1200 mg/kg (rat, subcutaneous). May be harmful if swallowed. May act as an irritant. Adverse reactions include hypotension, ECG changes, diarrhea, urinary retention, CNS depression and respiratory depression.


Renal impairment, myasthaenia gravis, digitalised patients; pregnancy. Monitor serum-magnesium concentrations.

Food Interaction

No interactions found.

Half Life

43.2 hours (for newborns)

Elimination Route

Magnesium is excreted solely by the kidney at a rate proportional to the serum concentration and glomerular filtration.

Pregnancy & Breastfeeding use

Pregnancy category B. Either animal-reproduction studies have not demonstrated a foetal risk but there are no controlled studies in pregnant women or animal-reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect (other than a decrease in fertility) that was not confirmed in controlled studies in women in the 1st trimester (and there is no evidence of a risk in later trimesters).


Heart block, severe renal impairment, myocardial damage.

Acute Overdose

Symptoms of hypermagnesaemia are: respiratory depression and loss of deep tendon reflexes due to neuromuscular blockade; nausea, vomiting, flushing, thirst, hypotension, drowsiness, confusion, slurred speech, double vision, bradycardia and muscle weakness.

Treatment in adults should include IV administration of 5-10 mEq of 10% calcium gluconate. Artificial respiration may be required.

Innovators Monograph

You find simplified version here Epsal

Epsal contains Magnesium Sulfate see full prescribing information from innovator Epsal Monograph, Epsal MSDS, Epsal FDA label

*** Taking medicines without doctor's advice can cause long-term problems.