Cestonil Plus

Cestonil Plus Syrup

An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and pellagra. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.

Pyridoxine is a water-soluble vitamin which functions in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. It is essential in Hb formation and GABA synthesis within the CNS. It also aids in the release of glycogen stored in the liver and muscles.

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is a water-soluble vitamin used in the prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy in those receiving isoniazid (isonicotinic acid hydrazide, INH). Vitamin B6 has been found to lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a small group of subjects with essential hypertension. Hypertension is another risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Another study showed pyridoxine hydrochloride to inhibit ADP- or epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation and to lower total cholesterol levels and increase HDL-cholesterol levels, again in a small group of subjects. Vitamin B6, in the form of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, was found to protect vascular endothelial cells in culture from injury by activated platelets. Endothelial injury and dysfunction are critical initiating events in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Human studies have demonstrated that vitamin B6 deficiency affects cellular and humoral responses of the immune system. Vitamin B6 deficiency results in altered lymphocyte differentiation and maturation, reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, impaired antibody production, decreased lymphocyte proliferation and decreased interleukin (IL)-2 production, among other immunologic activities.

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is a water-soluble vitamin used in the prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy in those receiving isoniazid (isonicotinic acid hydrazide, INH). Vitamin B6 has been found to lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a small group of subjects with essential hypertension. Hypertension is another risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Another study showed pyridoxine hydrochloride to inhibit ADP- or epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation and to lower total cholesterol levels and increase HDL-cholesterol levels, again in a small group of subjects. Vitamin B6, in the form of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, was found to protect vascular endothelial cells in culture from injury by activated platelets. Endothelial injury and dysfunction are critical initiating events in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Human studies have demonstrated that vitamin B6 deficiency affects cellular and humoral responses of the immune system. Vitamin B6 deficiency results in altered lymphocyte differentiation and maturation, reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, impaired antibody production, decreased lymphocyte proliferation and decreased interleukin (IL)-2 production, among other immunologic activities.

Ribavirin is a synthetic nucleoside which has inhibitory action against respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus and herpes simplex virus. The mechanism of action is not clear. It may act at several sites including cellular enzymes to interfere with viral nucleic acid synthesis. The mono- and triphosphate derivatives are known to be responsible for the antiviral action of the compound.

Ribavirin mediates direct antiviral activity against a number of DNA and RNA viruses by increasing the mutation frequency in the genomes of several RNA viruses. It is a member of the nucleoside antimetabolite drugs that interfere with duplication of the viral genetic material. The drug inhibits the activity of the enzyme RNA dependent RNA polymerase, due to its resemblence to building blocks of the RNA molecules.

Ribavirin mediates direct antiviral activity against a number of DNA and RNA viruses by increasing the mutation frequency in the genomes of several RNA viruses. It is a member of the nucleoside antimetabolite drugs that interfere with duplication of the viral genetic material. The drug inhibits the activity of the enzyme RNA dependent RNA polymerase, due to its resemblence to building blocks of the RNA molecules.

Uses

Nicotinamide is an ingredient found in a variety of cosmetic products.

Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is used to prevent or treat low levels of vitamin B6 in people who do not get enough of the vitamin from their diets. Most people who eat a normal diet do not need extra vitamin B6. However, some conditions (such as alcoholism, liver disease, overactive thyroid, heart failure) or medications (such as isoniazid, cycloserine, hydralazine, penicillamine) can cause low levels of vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 plays an important role in the body. It is needed to maintain the health of nerves, skin, and red blood cells.

Pyridoxine has been used to prevent or treat a certain nerve disorder (peripheral neuropathy) caused by certain medications (such as isoniazid). It has also been used to treat certain hereditary disorders (such as xanthurenic aciduria, hyperoxaluria, homocystinuria).

Ribavirin is used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection in combination with other antiviral drugs in patients with compensated liver disease not previously treated with interferon alpha and in adult CHC patients coinfected with HIV. Ribavirin should not be used alone.

Cestonil Plus is also used to associated treatment for these conditions: Gastrointestinal insufficiency, Hepatic Insufficiency, Macrocytic anemia, Secondary anemia, Vitamin Deficiency, Severe debilitation, Dietary and Nutritional Therapies, Nutritional supplementation, Dietary supplementationBackache, Dizziness, Fever, Headache, Hepatic; Functional Disturbance, Hepatitis, Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA), Ketosis, Macrocytic anemia, Menière's Disease, Menstrual Distress (Dysmenorrhea), Metabolic Acidosis, Motion Sickness, Nausea and vomiting, Neuralgia, Sciatic, Neuritis, Neurological Conditions caused by B Vitamin Deficiency, Secondary anemia, Soreness, Muscle, Toothache, Toxinfectious state, Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN), Vitamin B1 deficiency, Vitamin B12 Deficiency, Vitamin B6 Deficiency, Vitamin Deficiency, Minor aches and pains, Minor pain, Nutritional supplementation, Supplementation, Vitamin supplementation, Wellness of the LiverChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection, Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

How Cestonil Plus works

Vitamin B6 is the collective term for a group of three related compounds, pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxal (PL) and pyridoxamine (PM), and their phosphorylated derivatives, pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP), pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP). Although all six of these compounds should technically be referred to as vitamin B6, the term vitamin B6 is commonly used interchangeably with just one of them, pyridoxine. Vitamin B6, principally in its biologically active coenzyme form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, is involved in a wide range of biochemical reactions, including the metabolism of amino acids and glycogen, the synthesis of nucleic acids, hemogloblin, sphingomyelin and other sphingolipids, and the synthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

Ribavirin is reported to have several mechanism of actions that lead to inhibition of viral RNA and protein synthesis. After activation by adenosine kinase to ribavirin mono-, di-, and triphosphate metabolites. Ribavirin triphosphate (RTP) is the predominant metabolite which directly inhibits viral mRNA polymerase by binding to the nucleotide binding site of the enzyme. This prevents the binding of the correct nucleotides, leading to a reduction in viral replication or to the production of defective virions . RTP also demonstrates an inhibitory action on viral mRNA guanylyltransferase and mRNA 2′-O-methyltransferase of dengue virus. Inhibition of these enzymes disrupts the posttranslational capping of the 5′ end of viral mRNA through ribavirin being incorporated at the 5′ end in place of guanosine and preventing the cap methylation step.

Inhibition of host inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and subsequent depletion of GTP pool is proposed to be another mechanism of action of ribavirin. IMPDH catalyzes the rate-limiting step where inosine 5′-monophosphate is converted to xanthine monophosphate during guanosine monophosphate (GMP) synthesis. GMP is later converted to guanosine triphoshpate (GTP). Ribavirin monophosphate mimics inosine 5′-monophosphate and acts as a competitive inhibitor of IMPDH. Inhibited de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides and decreased intracellular GTP pools leads to a decline in viral protein synthesis and limit replication of viral genomes .

Ribavirin acts as a mutagen in the target virus to cause an 'error catastrophe' due to increased viral mutations. RTP pairs with cytidine triphosphate or uridine triphosphate with equal efficiency and to block HCV RNA elongation. It causes premature termination of nascent HCV RNA and increases mutagenesis by producing defective virions .

Ribavirin also exerts an immunomodulatory action of the host to the virus by shifting a Th2 response in favor of a Th1 phenotype. Th2 response and production of type 2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 stimulates the humoral response which enhances immunity toward the virus . Ribavirin enhanced induction of interferon-related genes, including the interferon-α receptor, and down-regulation of genes involved in interferon inhibition, apoptosis, and hepatic stellate cell activation in vitro .

Cestonil Plus

Trade Name Cestonil Plus
Generic Nicotinamide + Pizotifen (Hydrogen Maleate) + Pyridoxine + Ribavirin + Thiamine HCl (Vitamin B1) + Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
Weight 5.25mg/5ml, 0.5mg/5ml, 0.77mg/5ml, 1.31mg/5ml, 0.88mg/5ml
Type Syrup
Therapeutic Class
Manufacturer Raazee Theraputics (pvt) Ltd,
Available Country Pakistan
Last Updated: June 23, 2021 at 4:38 pm

Structure

Cestonil Plus
Nicotinamide + Pizotifen (Hydrogen Maleate) + Pyridoxine + Ribavirin + Thiamine HCl (Vitamin B1) + Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Structure

Dosage

Cestonil Plus dosage

ADULTS:

BY MOUTH:

  • For hereditary sideroblastic anemia: Initially, 200-600 mg of vitamin B6 is used. The dose is decreased to 30-50 mg per day after an adequate response.
  • For vitamin B6 deficiency: In most adults, the typical dose is 2.5-25 mg daily for three weeks then 1.5-2.5 mg per day thereafter. In women taking birth control pills, the dose is 25-30 mg per day.
  • For abnormally high levels of homocysteine in the blood: For reducing high levels of homocysteine in the blood after childbirth, 50-200 mg of vitamin B6 has been taken alone. Also, 100 mg of vitamin B6 has been taken in combination with 0.5 mg of folic acid.
  • For preventing macular degeneration: 50 mg of vitamin B6 in the form of pyridoxine has been used daily in combination with 1000 mcg of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) 1000 mcg and 2500 mcg of folic acid for about 7 years.
  • For hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis): A specific supplement (Kyolic, Total Heart Health, Formula 108, Wakunga) containing 250 mg of aged garlic extract, 100 mcg of vitamin B12, 300 mcg of folic acid, 12.5 mg of vitamin B6, and 100 mg of L-arginine daily for 12 months.
  • For kidney stones: 25-500 mg of vitamin B6 has been used daily.
  • For nausea during pregnancy: 10-25 mg of vitamin B6 taken three or four times per day has been used. In people who don't respond to vitamin B6 alone, a combination product containing vitamin B6 and the drug doxylamine (Diclectin, Duchesnay Inc.) is used three or four times per day. Also, another product containing 75 mg of vitamin B6, 12 mcg of vitamin B12, 1 mg of folic acid, and 200 mg of calcium (PremesisRx, KV Pharmaceuticals) is used daily.
  • For symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS): 50-100 mg of vitamin B6 is used daily, alone or along with 200 mg of magnesium.
  • For treating tardive dyskinesia: 100 mg of vitamin B6 per day has been increased weekly up to 400 mg per day, given in two divided doses.

INJECTED INTO THE MUSCLE:

  • Hereditary sideroblastic anemia: 250 mg of vitamin B6 daily, reduced to 250 mg of vitamin B6 weekly once adequate response is achieved.

CHILDREN:

BY MOUTH:

  • For kidney stones: Up to 20 mg/kg daily in children aged 5 years and up.

INJECTED INTO THE VEIN OR MUSCLE:

  • For seizures that respond to vitamin B6 (pyridoxine-dependent seizures): 10-100 mg is recommended.

The daily recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) of vitamin B6 are: 

  • Infants 0-6 months, 0.1 mg
  • Infants 7-12 months, 0.3 mg
  • Children 1-3 years, 0.5 mg
  • Children 4-8 years, 0.6 mg
  • Children 9-13 years, 1 mg
  • Males 14-50 years, 1.3 mg
  • Males over 50 years, 1.7 mg
  • Females 14-18 years, 1.2 mg
  • Females 19-50 years, 1.3 mg
  • Females over 50 years, 1.5 mg
  • Pregnant women, 1.9 mg
  • Breast-feeding women, 2 mg
  • Some researchers think the RDA for women 19-50 years should be increased to 1.5-1.7 mg per day.

The recommended maximum daily intake is: 

  • Children 1-3 years, 30 mg
  • Children 4-8 years, 40 mg
  • Children 9-13 years, 60 mg

Adults, pregnant and breast-feeding women:

  • 14-18 years, 80 mg
  • over 18 years, 100 mg

The recommended duration of treatment for patients previously untreated with interferon is 24 to 48 weeks. After 24 weeks of treatment virologic response should be assessed. Treatment discontinuation should be considered in any patient who has not achieved an HCV RNA below the limit of detection of the assay by 24 weeks. There are no safety and efficacy data on treatment for longer than 48 weeks in the previously untreated patient population. In patients who relapse following interferon therapy, the recommended duration of treatment is 24 weeks. There are no safety and efficacy data on treatment for longer than 24 weeks in the relapse patient populations.

Ribavirin + Interferon: Genotype Ribavirin Daily Interferon alpha-2a Duration or interferon alpha-2b. 

  • All <75 kg: (400+600) mg 3 MIU 3 times weekly 48 weeks Genotypes subcutaneously (Genotype1&4)
  • >75 kg: (600+600) mg 24 weeks (Genotype2&3)

Ribavirin + Peg-Interferon: 

Genotype Ribavirin Daily Peg-Interferon alpha-2a Duration or Peg-interferon alpha-2b:

  • 1 & 4 < 75 kg: (400+600) mg 180 gm once weekly 48 weeks
  • > 75 kg: (600+600) mg subcutaneously 2 & 3 (400+400) mg 24 weeks

Ribavirin may be administered without regard to food, but should be administered in a consistent manner. Drink plenty of water while being treated with this medication; drinking water will decrease the risk of serious side effects.

Side Effects

Pyridoxine usually has no side effects when used in recommended doses.

If your doctor has prescribed this medication, remember that he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Pyridoxine can cause side effects when taken in large doses for a long time. Tell your doctor right away if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: headache, nausea, drowsiness, numbness/tingling of arms/legs.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

The most common adverse reactions in adults receiving combination therapy are psychiatric and central nervous system effects, severe ocular disorder, dental and periodontal disorders & growth inhibition in children and adolescents that may be irreversible in some patients. The most common adverse reactions in pediatric subjects were similar to those seen in adults.

Toxicity

Oral Rat LD50 = 4 gm/kg. Toxic effects include convulsions, dyspnea, hypermotility, diarrhea, ataxia and muscle weakness.

Rivabirin and PEG-Interferon Alfa-2A dual therapy is associated with flu-like symptoms, depression, suicide, insomnia, irritability, relapse of drug abuse/overdose, hepatic decompensation in 2% of HIV co-infected patients and bacterial infections each occurring at a frequency of less than 1%. Ribavirin-induced anemia is a dose-dependent adverse effect where reduced hemoglobin levels can be seen within the first 1-2 weeks in therapy. The mechanism of ribavirin-induced anemia has been shown to involve reductions in reticulocyte counts and erythrocyte Na-K pump activity, and increases in K-Cl cotransport, membrane bound IgG, and C3, and erythrocyte band 3 . Oral LD50 in rats is 2700 mg/kg. Intraperitoneal LD50 in mouse is 1300 mg/kg. Potential carcinogenic effects of ribavirin to humans cannot be yet excluded as it demonstrates mutagenic activity in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay.

Precaution

Before taking pyridoxine, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

During pregnancy, this vitamin has been found to be safe when used in recommended doses.

This vitamin passes into breast milk and is considered to be safe during breast-feeding when used in recommended doses. Consult your doctor for more information.

Birth defects and fetal death with ribavirin: Do not use in pregnancy and for 6 months after treatment. Patients must have a negative pregnancy test prior to therapy, use at least 2 forms of contraception and undergo monthly pregnancy tests. For a male patient, it is very important for his female partner to avoid becoming pregnant during treatment and during the 7 months after treatment and do not have sex with a pregnant women.

Interaction

The effects of some drugs can change if you take other drugs or herbal products at the same time. This can increase your risk for serious side effects or may cause your medications not to work correctly. These drug interactions are possible, but do not always occur. Your doctor or pharmacist can often prevent or manage interactions by changing how you use your medications or by close monitoring.

To help your doctor and pharmacist give you the best care, be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products) before starting treatment with this product. While using this product, do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any other medicines you are using without your doctor's approval.

Some products that may interact with this vitamin include: altretamine, cisplatin, phenytoin.

This vitamin may interfere with certain laboratory tests (including urine test for urobilinogen), possibly causing false test results. Make sure laboratory personnel and all your doctors know you use this vitamin.

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or reduce dose or discontinue interferon, ribavirin or both with worsening toxicities

Azathioprine: Concomitant use of azathioprine with ribavirin has been reported to induce severe pancytopenia and may increase the risk of azathioprine-related myelotoxicity.

Volume of Distribution

Pyridoxine main active metabolite, pyridoxal 5’-phosphate, is released into the circulation (accounting for at least 60% of circulating vitamin B6) and is highly protein bound, primarily to albumin.

Ribavirin displays a large volume of distribution .

Elimination Route

The B vitamins are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, except in malabsorption syndromes. Pyridoxine is absorbed mainly in the jejunum. The Cmax of pyridoxine is achieved within 5.5 hours.

Ribavirin is reported to be rapidly and extensively absorbed following oral administration. The average time to reach Cmax was 2 hours after oral administration of 1200 mg ribavirin . The oral bioavailability is 64% following a single oral dose administration of 600mg ribavirin .

Half Life

The total adult body pool consists of 16 to 25 mg of pyridoxine. Its half-life appears to be 15 to 20 days.

The terminal half-life of ribavirin following administration of a single oral dose of 1200 mg is about 120 to 170 hours .

Clearance

The total apparent clearance rate after a single oral dose administration of 1200 mg ribavirin is 26L/h .

Elimination Route

The major metabolite of pyridoxine, 4-pyridoxic acid, is inactive and is excreted in urine

The metabolites of ribavirin are renally excreted. After the oral administration of 600mg radiolabeled ribavirin, approximately 61% of the drug was detected in the urine and 12% was detected in the feces. 17% of administered dose was in unchanged form .

Pregnancy & Breastfeeding use

Category A: Controlled studies in women fail to demonstrate a risk to the foetus in the 1st trimester (and there is no evidence of a risk in later trimesters), and the possibility of foetal harm remains remote.

Pregnancy Category X. Ribavirin produced significant embryocidal and/or teratogenic effects in all animal species in which adequate studies have been conducted. Malformations of the skull, palate, eye, jaw, limbs, skeleton and gastrointestinal tract were noted. The incidence and severity of teratogenic effects increased with escalation of the drug dose. Survival of fetuses and offspring was reduced.

Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether Ribavirin is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and to avoid any potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from ribavirin, a decision should be made either to discontinue nursing or therapy with Ribavirin, based on the importance of the therapy to the mother.

Contraindication

Women who are pregnant. Ribavirin may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Ribavirin is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Patients with hemoglobinopathies (e.g., thalassemia major or sickle-cell anemia). In combination with didanosine. Reports of fatal hepatic failure, as well as peripheral neuropathy, pancreatitis and symptomatic hyperlactatemia/lactic acidosis have been reported in clinical trials.

Special Warning

Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness of Ribavirin in combination with Peginterferon has not been established in pediatric patients below the age of 3 years.

Geriatric Use: The risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. The dose of Ribavirin should be reduced in patients with creatinine clearance less than or equal to 50 ml/min; and the dose of Interferon should be reduced in patients with creatinine clearance less than 30 ml/min.

Storage Condition

Keep out of the reach of children. Keep in a cool & dry place. Protect from light.