|Generic||Vitamin E + vitamin C + asam folat + vitamin B1 + vitamin B2 + niasin + vitamin B6 + vitamin B12 + asam pantotenat + zinc|
|Weight||30iu, 750mg, 400mcg, 15mg, 15mg, 100mg, 20mg, 12mcg, 20mg, 22.5mg|
|Last Updated:||September 19, 2023 at 7:00 am|
Vitamin E Capsule is a Vitamin E preparation. Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant in the body. Vitamin E protects polyunsaturated fatty acids (which are components of cellular membrane) and other oxygen-sensitive substances such as vitamin A & vitamin C from oxidation. Vitamin E reacts with free radicals, which is the cause of oxidative damage to cell membranes, without the formation of another free radical in the process. The main pharmacological action of vitamin E in humans is its antioxidant effect.
In premature neonates irritability, edema, thrombosis and hemolytic anemia may be caused due to vitamin E deficiency. Creatinuria, ceroid deposition, muscle weakness, decreased erythrocyte survival or increased in vitro hemolysis by oxidizing agents have been identified in adults and children with low serum tocopherol concentrations.
Vitamin E is a collective term used to describe 8 separate fat soluble antioxidants, most commonly alpha-tocopherol. Vitamin E acts to protect cells against the effects of free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of the body's metabolism. Vitamin E deficiency is seen in persons with abetalipoproteinemia, premature, very low birth weight infants (birth weights less than 1500 grams, or 3½ pounds), cystic fibrosis, and cholestasis and severe liver disease. Preliminary research suggests vitamin E may help prevent or delay coronary heart disease and protect against the damaging effects of free radicals, which may contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer. It also protects other fat-soluble vitamins (A and B group vitamins) from destruction by oxygen. Low levels of vitamin E have been linked to increased incidence of breast and colon cancer.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with anemia, short stature, hypogonadism, impaired wound healing, and geophagia. It is identified by the symbol Zn .
A newer study suggests implies that an imbalance of zinc is associated with the neuronal damage associated with traumatic brain injury, stroke, and seizures .
Understanding the mechanisms that control brain zinc homeostasis is, therefore, imperative to the development of preventive and treatment regimens for these and other neurological disorders .
As a dietary supplement:
- Vitamin E deficiency resulting from impaired absorption.
- Increased requirements due to diet rich in polyunsaturated fats.
- For healthy hair & skin
- As an Antioxidant
- Hemolytic anemia due to Vitamin E deficiency
: Heavy metal poisoning, Hepatotoxin poisoning, Hemolytic anemia, Oxygen therapy and replacement therapy in nutritional deficiency states for the betterment of skin and hair.
Zinc is an essential element commonly used for the treatment of patients with documented zinc deficiency.
Zinc can be used for the treatment and prevention of zinc deficiency/its consequences, including stunted growth and acute diarrhea in children, and slowed wound healing. It is also utilized for boosting the immune system, treating the common cold and recurrent ear infections, as well as preventing lower respiratory tract infections .
Becom-Zet is also used to associated treatment for these conditions: Vitamin Deficiency, Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, Dietary supplementationCandidiasis, Common Cold, Diaper Dermatitis, Diaper Rash, Eye redness, Iron Deficiency (ID), Ocular Irritation, Skin Irritation, Sunburn, Wilson's Disease, Zinc Deficiency, Dietary and Nutritional Therapies, Dietary supplementation
How Becom-Zet works
The mechanism of action for most of vitamin E's effects are still unknown. Vitamin E is an antioxidant, preventing free radical reactions with cell membranes. Though in some cases vitamin E has been shown to have pro-oxidant activity.
One mechanism of vitamin E's antioxidant effect is in the termination of lipid peroxidation. Vitamin E reacts with unstable lipid radicals, producing stable lipids and a relatively stable vitamin E radical. The vitamin E radical is then reduced back to stable vitamin E by reaction with ascorbate or glutathione.
Zinc has three primary biological roles: catalytic, structural, and regulatory. The catalytic and structural role of zinc is well established, and there are various noteworthy reviews on these functions. For example, zinc is a structural constituent in numerous proteins, inclusive of growth factors, cytokines, receptors, enzymes, and transcription factors for different cellular signaling pathways. It is implicated in numerous cellular processes as a cofactor for approximately 3000 human proteins including enzymes, nuclear factors, and hormones .
Zinc promotes resistance to epithelial apoptosis through cell protection (cytoprotection) against reactive oxygen species and bacterial toxins, likely through the antioxidant activity of the cysteine-rich metallothioneins .
In HL-60 cells (promyelocytic leukemia cell line), zinc enhances the up-regulation of A20 mRNA, which, via TRAF pathway, decreases NF-kappaB activation, leading to decreased gene expression and generation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1beta, and IL-8 .
There are several mechanisms of action of zinc on acute diarrhea. Various mechanisms are specific to the gastrointestinal system: zinc restores mucosal barrier integrity and enterocyte brush-border enzyme activity, it promotes the production of antibodies and circulating lymphocytes against intestinal pathogens, and has a direct effect on ion channels, acting as a potassium channel blocker of adenosine 3-5-cyclic monophosphate-mediated chlorine secretion. Cochrane researchers examined the evidence available up to 30 September 2016 .
Zinc deficiency in humans decreases the activity of serum thymulin (a hormone of the thymus), which is necessary for the maturation of T-helper cells. T-helper 1 (Th(1)) cytokines are decreased but T-helper 2 (Th(2)) cytokines are not affected by zinc deficiency in humans [A342417].
The change of Th(1) to Th(2) function leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunction. Because IL-2 production (Th(1) cytokine) is decreased, this causes decreased activity of natural-killer-cell (NK cell) and T cytolytic cells, normally involved in killing viruses, bacteria, and malignant cells [A3424].
In humans, zinc deficiency may lead to the generation of new CD4+ T cells, produced in the thymus. In cell culture studies (HUT-78, a Th(0) human malignant lymphoblastoid cell line), as a result of zinc deficiency, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, phosphorylation of IkappaB, and binding of NF-kappaB to DNA are decreased and this results in decreased Th(1) cytokine production .
In another study, zinc supplementation in human subjects suppressed the gene expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased oxidative stress markers [A3424]. In HL-60 cells (a human pro-myelocytic leukemia cell line), zinc deficiency increased the levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-8 cytokines and mRNA. In such cells, zinc was found to induce A20, a zinc finger protein that inhibited NF-kappaB activation by the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor pathway. This process decreased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers .
The exact mechanism of zinc in acne treatment is poorly understood. However, zinc is considered to act directly on microbial inflammatory equilibrium and facilitate antibiotic absorption when used in combination with other agents. Topical zinc alone as well as in combination with other agents may be efficacious because of its anti-inflammatory activity and ability to reduce P. acnes bacteria by the inhibition of P. acnes lipases and free fatty acid levels .
Betterment of Cardiovascular health: 400 mg - 800 mg / day
Deficiency syndrome in adults: 200 mg - 400 mg / day
Deficiency syndrome in children: 200 mg / day
Thalassemia: 800 mg / day
Sickle-cell anemia: 400 mg / day
Betterment of Skin & Hair: 200 mg - 400 mg / day (Topical use is also established for beautification)
Chronic cold in adults: 200 mg / day
Overdoses (>1g) have been associated with minor side effects, including hypertension, fatigue, diarrhea and myopathy
There is no data available for effects in pregnancy, breast feeding, hepatic impairment, or renal impairment. However, it appears that the process of vitamin E elimination is strict and self regulating enough that vitamin E toxicity is exceedingly rare. Studies showing adverse effects from excess vitamin E generally involve people consuming more than 1000mg/day for weeks to months.
According to the Toxnet database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine, the oral LD50 for zinc is close to 3 g/kg body weight, more than 10-fold higher than cadmium and 50-fold higher than mercury .
The LD50 values of several zinc compounds (ranging from 186 to 623 mg zinc/kg/day) have been measured in rats and mice .
Vitamin E may enhance the anticoagulant activity of anticoagulant drugs. Caution is advised in premature infants with high dose Vitamin E supplementation, because of reported risk of necrotizing enterocilitis.
Vitamin E may impair the absorption of Vitamin A. Vitamin K functions impairement happens at the level of prothrombin formation and potentiates the effect of Warfarin.
Volume of Distribution
0.41L/kg in premature neonates given a 20mg/kg intramuscular injection.
A pharmacokinetic study was done in rats to determine the distribution and other metabolic indexes of zinc in two particle sizes. It was found that zinc particles were mainly distributed to organs including the liver, lung, and kidney within 72 hours without any significant difference being found according to particle size or rat gender .
10-33% of deuterium labelled vitamin E is absorbed in the small intestine. Absorption of Vitamin E is dependant upon absorption of the fat in which it is dissolved. For patients with poor fat absorption, a water soluble form of vitamin E may need to be substituted such as tocopheryl polyethylene glycol-1000 succinate.
In other studies the oral bioavailability of alpha-tocopherol was 36%, gamma-tocotrienol was 9%. The time to maximum concentration was 9.7 hours for alpha-tocopherol and 2.4 hours for gamma-tocotrienol.
Zinc is absorbed in the small intestine by a carrier-mediated mechanism . Under regular physiologic conditions, transport processes of uptake do not saturate. The exact amount of zinc absorbed is difficult to determine because zinc is secreted into the gut. Zinc administered in aqueous solutions to fasting subjects is absorbed quite efficiently (at a rate of 60-70%), however, absorption from solid diets is less efficient and varies greatly, dependent on zinc content and diet composition .
Generally, 33% is considered to be the average zinc absorption in humans . More recent studies have determined different absorption rates for various populations based on their type of diet and phytate to zinc molar ratio. Zinc absorption is concentration dependent and increases linearly with dietary zinc up to a maximum rate [L20902].
Additionally zinc status may influence zinc absorption. Zinc-deprived humans absorb this element with increased efficiency, whereas humans on a high-zinc diet show a reduced efficiency of absorption .
44 hours in premature neonates given a 20mg/kg intramuscular injection. 12 minutes in intravenous injection of intestinal lymph.
The half-life of zinc in humans is approximately 280 days .
6.5mL/hr/kg in premature neonates given a 20mg/kg intramuscular injection.
In one study of healthy patients, the clearance of zinc was found to be 0.63 ± 0.39 μg/min .
Alpha tocopherol is excreted in urine as well as bile in the feces mainly as a carboxyethyl-hydrochroman (CEHC) metabolite, but it can be excreted in it's natural form .
The excretion of zinc through gastrointestinal tract accounts for approximately one-half of all zinc eliminated from the body .
Considerable amounts of zinc are secreted through both biliary and intestinal secretions, however most is reabsorbed. This is an important process in the regulation of zinc balance. Other routes of zinc excretion include both urine and surface losses (sloughed skin, hair, sweat) .
Zinc has been shown to induce intestinal metallothionein, which combines zinc and copper in the intestine and prevents their serosal surface transfer. Intestinal cells are sloughed with approximately a 6-day turnover, and the metallothionein-bound copper and zinc are lost in the stool and are thus not absorbed .
Measurements in humans of endogenous intestinal zinc have primarily been made as fecal excretion; this suggests that the amounts excreted are responsive to zinc intake, absorbed zinc and physiologic need .
In one study, elimination kinetics in rats showed that a small amount of ZnO nanoparticles was excreted via the urine, however, most of the nanoparticles were excreted via the feces .
Pregnancy & Breastfeeding use
Use in pregnancy: Vitamin E may be used in pregnancy in the normally recommended dose but the safety of high dose therapy has not been established.
Use in lactation: There appears to be no contraindication to breast feeding by mothers taking the normally recommended dose.
No known contraindications found.
Use in Children: Vitamin E is safe for children
Large doses of vitamin E (more than 1 gm/day) have been reported to increase bleeding tendency in vitamin K deficient patients such as those taking oral anticoagulants.
Store at a cool and dry place, Protect from light and moisture.
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