Avloxin Capsule, Powder For Suspension

Avloxin is a semisynthetic analogue of Cephalosporin C. It kills bacteria by interfering in the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Peptidoglycan is a heteropolymeric structure that provides the cell wall with mechanical stability. The final stage in the synthesis of peptidoglycan involves the completion of the cross-linking and the terminal glycine residue of the Pentaglycine Bridge is linked to the fourth residue of the pentapeptide (d-alanin). The transpeptidase enzyme that performs this step is inhibited by penicillins and cephalosporins. As a result the bacterial cell wall is weakened, the cell swells and then ruptures. Avloxin is a first generation cephalosporin that is active by mouth.

Uses

Avloxin is used for the treatment of the following infections when caused by susceptible organisms.

  • Respiratory tract infections: Acute and chronic bronchitis and infected bronchiectasis.
  • Genito-urinary tract infections: Acute and chronic nephritis, cystitis, urethritis and prostatitis, prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections.
  • Skin and soft tissue infections: Caused by staphylococci and/or streptococci.
  • Ear, Nose and Throat infections: Otitis media, mastoiditis, sinusitis, follicular tonsillitis and pharyngitis.
  • Bone infections: Caused by staphylococci and/or P. mirabilis.

Avloxin is also used to associated treatment for these conditions: Bone Infection, Genitourinary tract infection, Otitis Media (OM), Respiratory Tract Infections (RTI), Skin and skin structure infections, Acute Prostatitis

Trade Name Avloxin
Generic Cephalexin
Other Names Cefalexin, Cefalexina, Céfalexine, Cefalexinum
Weight 250mg, 500mg, 125mg/5ml
Type Capsule, Powder For Suspension
Formula C16H17N3O4S
Weight Average: 347.389
Monoisotopic: 347.093976737
Protein binding

Cephalexin is 10-15% bound to serum proteins including serum albumin.[A179053]

Therapeutic Class First generation Cephalosporins
Manufacturer ACI Limited
Available Country Bangladesh
Last Updated: June 23, 2021 at 11:18 am

Dosage

Avloxin dosage

Adult

  • The usual dose is 250 mg to 500 mg every 6 hour.
  • For skin and soft tissue infections, streptococcal pharyngitis and uncomplicated cystitis, in patients over 15 years of age: 500 mg of the drug may be administered every 12 hour.
  • In severe or deep seated infections the dose can be increased up to 3 g to 6 g daily.

Children: The dosage range is 25-100 mg/kg/day in divided doses to a maximum of 4 g dailyChildren's Weight Recommended Dose:

  • 10 kg (22 Ibs): 62.5 mg to 125 mg qid or 125 mg to 250 mg bid
  • 20 kg (44 Ibs): 125 mg to 250 mg qid or 250 mg to 500 mg bid
  • 40 kg (88 Ibs): 250 mg to 500 mg qid or 500 mg to 1 g bid

For streptococcal pharyngitis, skin and soft tissue infections and in patients over 1 year of age the total daily dose may be divided and administered every 12 hour. In the therapy of otitis media 75-100 mg/kg/day in four divided doses may be required. In the treatment of β haemolytic streptococcal infections a therapeutic dosage of the drug should be given at least for 10 days.

Side Effects

Side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort. Symptoms of pseudomembranous colitis may appear either during or after antibiotic treatment. Skin rash, angio oedema, rise in serum aminotransferases, eosinophilia, neutropenia have been reported very rarely. Superinfection with resistant micro organisms, particularly candida may follow the treatment.

Precaution

Cefalexin should be given with caution in patients with renal impairment. Under such condition, careful clinical observation should be made because safe dosage may be lower than the usually recommended. The urine of patients receiving Cefalexin may give a false positive reaction for glucose with copper reduction reagent. Positive results to Coombs’ test have been reported. Although there is no evidence of teratogenicity in animal tests, Cefalexin may be used during pregnancy when it is considered essential. Cefalexin is found in the milk of nursing mothers, hence caution should be taken when it is administered to nursing mothers.

Food Interaction

  • Take with or without food.

Volume of Distribution

5.2-5.8L.

Half Life

The half life of cephalexin is 49.5 minutes in a fasted state and 76.5 minutes with food though these times were not significantly different in the study.

Clearance

Clearance from one subject was 376mL/min.

Pregnancy & Breastfeeding use

Pregnancy Category B. Cefalexin may be used during pregnancy when it is considered essential. Cefalexin is found in the milk of nursing mothers, hence caution should be taken when it is administered to nursing mothers.

Contraindication

Cephalen is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the cephalosporin group of antibiotics.

Storage Condition

Should be stored in cool and dry place.

Avloxin contains Cephalexin see full prescribing information from innovator Monograph