Atolimus inhibits T-lymphocyte activation, although the exact mechanism of action is not known. Experimental evidence suggests that tacrolimus binds to an intracellular protein, FKBP-12. A complex of tacrolimus-FKBP-12, calcium, calmodulin, and calcineurin is then formed and the phosphatase activity of calcineurin inhibited. This effect may prevent the dephosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NF-AT), a nuclear component thought to initiate gene transcription for the formation of lymphokines (such as interleukin-2, gamma interferon). The net result is the inhibition of T-lymphocyte activation (i.e., immunosuppression).
Atolimus prolongs the survival of the host and transplanted graft in animal transplant models of liver, kidney, heart, bone marrow, small boweland pancreas, lung and trachea, skin, cornea, and limb.
In animals, tacrolimus has been demonstrated to suppress some humoral immunity and, to a greater extent, cell-mediated reactions such asallograft rejection, delayed type hypersensitivity, collageninduced arthritis, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, and graft versus host disease.
Atolimus ointment is used for short-term and intermittent long-term therapy in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis in whom the use of alternative, conventional therapies are deemed inadvisable because of potential risks, or in the treatment of patients who are not adequately responsive to or are intolerant of alternative, conventional therapies. Atolimus Ointment is also used for other skin conditions such as chronic cutaneous graft-vs-host disease, hand and foot eczema, allergic contact dermatitis, psoriasis, lichen planus, facial lichen, vulvar lichen sclerosus, pyoderma gangrenosum, leg ulcers in rheumatoid arthritis, steroid-induced rosacea & alopecia areata, annular erythema, chronic actinic dermatitis and recalcitrant facial erythema.
Atolimus is a calcineurin-inhibitor immunosuppressant used for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in kidney transplant patients in combination with other immunosuppressants
Atolimus is also used to associated treatment for these conditions: Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD), Heart Transplant Rejection, Kidney Transplant Rejection, Liver Transplant Rejection, Oral Lichen Planus, Psoriasis, Pyoderma Gangrenosum, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Severe Atopic Dermatitis, Vitiligo, Moderate Atopic dermatitis, Refractory Atopic dermatitis, Refractory Rheumatoid arthritis, Severe Rheumatoid arthritis
~99% bound to human plasma protein, primarily to albumin and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein. This is independent of concentration over a range of 5-50 ng/mL.
|Therapeutic Class||Drugs affecting the immune response|
|Manufacturer||Beximco Pharmaceuticals Ltd|
|Last Updated:||June 23, 2021 at 11:25 am|
Table Of contents
Apply a thin layer of Atolimus ointment onto the affected skin areas twice daily and rub in gently and completely. Treatment should be continued for one week after clearing of signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis. The safety of Atolimus ointment under occlusion which may promote systemic exposure has not been evaluated. Atolimus ointment should not be used with occlusive dressings.
Usual Adult Dose for Organ Transplant- Rejection Prophylaxis
- In combination with azathioprine: Initial dose: 0.1 mg/kg orally every 12 hours. Initiate within 24 hours of surgery, but delay until renal function has recovered.
- In combination with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)/interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor antagonist: Initial dose: 0.05 mg/kg orally every 12 hours. Initiate within 24 hours of surgery, but delay until renal function has recovered.
- Initial dose: 0.05 to 0.075 mg/kg orally every 12 hours. Initiate no sooner than 6 hours after surgery.
- Initial dose: 0.0375 mg/kg orally every 12 hours. Initiate no sooner than 6 hours after surgery
Usual Pediatric Dose for Organ Transplant- Rejection Reversal
- Initial dose: 0.075 to 0.1 mg/kg orally every 12 hours
Atolimus ointment should be applied as a thin layer to affected or commonly affected areas of the skin. Atolimus ointment may be used on any part of the body, including face, neck and flexure areas, except on mucous membranes. Atolimus ointment should not be applied under occlusion because this method of administration has not been studied in patients.
Transient burning or heat sensation at the site of application is frequently observed. It tends to decrease after repeated applications. Other side-effects include skin erythema, flu-like symptoms, headache and skin infection. It does not cause skin atrophy despite prolonged application.
Cautions should be exercised while treatment with Atolimus ointment in patients with atopic dermatitis predisposed to superficial skin infections. The safety of Atolimus ointment has not been established in patients with generalized erythroderma.
Formal topical drug interaction studies with Atolimus ointment have not been conducted. The concomitant administration of known CYP3A4 inhibitors in patients with widespread and/or erythrodermic disease should be done with caution. Some examples of such drugs are erythromycin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, calcium channel blockers and cimetidine.
Since Atolimus is metabolized mainly by CYP3A enzymes, drugs or substances known to inhibit these enzymes may increase Atolimus whole blood concentrations. Drugs known to induce CYP3A enzymes may decrease Atolimus whole blood concentrations. Dose adjustments may be needed along with frequent monitoring of Atolimus whole blood trough concentrations when Atolimus is administered with CYP3A inhibitors or inducers. In addition, patients should be monitored for adverse reactions including changes in renal function and QT prolongation
- Avoid alcohol. Consuming alcohol may increase the rate of tacrolimus release from extended-release formulations.
- Avoid grapefruit products.
- Exercise caution with St. John's Wort. This herb induces the CYP3A4 metabolism of tacrolimus; therefore, monitoring tacrolimus whole blood trough concentrations may be warranted.
- Take at the same time every day.
- Take on an empty stomach. Take at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal as coadministration with food decreases the rate and extent of absorption.
- Take separate from antacids. Coadministration of tacrolimus with aluminum or magnesium hydroxide antacids may increase the serum levels of tacrolimus, which poses a risk for toxicity.
Volume of Distribution
- 2.6 ± 2.1 L/kg [pediatric liver transplant patients]
- 1.07 ± 0.20 L/kg [patients with renal impairment, 0.02 mg/kg/4 hr dose, IV]
- 3.1 ± 1.6 L/kg [Mild Hepatic Impairment, 0.02 mg/kg/4 hr dose, IV]
- 3.7 ± 4.7 L/kg [Mild Hepatic Impairment, 7.7 mg dose, PO]
- 3.9 ± 1.0 L/kg [Severe hepatic impairment, 0.02 mg/kg/4 hr dose, IV]
- 3.1 ± 3.4 L/kg [Severe hepatic impairment, 8 mg dose, PO]
The elimination half life in adult healthy volunteers, kidney transplant patients, liver transplants patients, and heart transplant patients are approximately 35, 19, 12, 24 hours, respectively. The elimination half life in pediatric liver transplant patients was 11.5±3.8 hours, in pediatric kidney transplant patients was 10.2±5.0 (range 3.4-25) hours.
- 0.040 L/hr/kg [healthy subjects, IV]
- 0.172 ± 0.088 L/hr/kg [healthy subjects, oral]
- 0.083 L/hr/kg [adult kidney transplant patients, IV]
- 0.053 L/hr/kg [adult liver transplant patients, IV]
- 0.051 L/hr/kg [adult heart transplant patients, IV]
- 0.138 ± 0.071 L/hr/kg [pediatric liver transplant patients]
- 0.12 ± 0.04 (range 0.06-0.17) L/hr/kg [pediatric kidney transplant patients]
- 0.038 ± 0.014 L/hr/kg [patients with renal impairment, 0.02 mg/kg/4 hr dose, IV]
- 0.042 ± 0.02 L/hr/kg [Mild Hepatic Impairment, 0.02 mg/kg/4 hr dose, IV]
- 0.034 ± 0.019 L/hr/kg [Mild Hepatic Impairment, 7.7 mg dose, PO]
- 0.017 ± 0.013 L/hr/kg [Severe hepatic impairment, 0.02 mg/kg/4 hr dose, IV]
- 0.016 ± 0.011 L/hr/kg [Severe hepatic impairment, 8 mg dose, PO]
Pregnancy & Breastfeeding use
Pregnancy Category C. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of topically administered Atolimus in pregnant women. The experience with Atolimus ointment when used by pregnant women is too limited to permit assessment of the safety of its use during pregnancy.
Nursing Mothers: Although systemic absorption of Atolimus following topical applications of Atolimus ointment is minimal relative to systemic administration, it is known that Atolimus is excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Atolimus, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Atolimus ointment is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to Atolimus or any other component of the preparation.
Atolimus capsules are contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to Atolimus. Atolimus injection is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to HCO-60 (polyoxyl 60 hydrogenated castor oil). Hypersensitivity symptoms reported include dyspnea, rash, pruritus, and acute respiratory distress syndrome
Pediatric Use: The safety and efficacy of Atolimus in pediatric kidney and heart transplant patients have not been established. Successful liver transplants have been performed in pediatric patients (ages up to 16 years) using Atolimus. Two randomized active-controlled trials of Atolimus in primary liver transplantation included 56 pediatric patients. Thirty-one patients were randomized to Atolimus-based and 25 to cyclosporine-based therapies. Additionally, a minimum of 122 pediatric patients were studied in an uncontrolled trial of Atolimus in living related donor liver transplantation. Pediatric patients generally required higher doses of Atolimus to maintain blood trough concentrations of Atolimus similar to adult patients.
Geriatric Use: Clinical trials of Atolimus did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Use in Renal Impairment: The pharmacokinetics of Atolimus in patients with renal impairment was similar to that in healthy volunteers with normal renal function. However, consideration should be given to dosing Atolimus at the lower end of the therapeutic dosing range in patients who have received a liver or heart transplant and have pre-existing renal impairment. Further reductions in dose below the targeted range may be required
Use in Hepatic Impairment: The mean clearance of Atolimus was substantially lower in patients with severe hepatic impairment (mean Child-Pugh score: >10) compared to healthy volunteers with normal hepatic function. Close monitoring of Atolimus trough concentrations is warranted in patients with hepatic impairment.
The use of Atolimus in liver transplant recipients experiencing post-transplant hepatic impairment may be associated with increased risk of developing renal insufficiency related to high whole-blood trough concentrations of Atolimus. These patients should be monitored closely and dosage adjustments should be considered. Some evidence suggests that lower doses should be used in these patients
Atolimus ointment is not for oral use. Accidental oral ingestion of Atolimus ointment may lead to adverse effects associated with systemic administration of Atolimus. If oral ingestion occurs, medical advice should be sought.
Limited overdosage experience is available. Acute overdosages of up to 30 times the intended dose have been reported. Almost all cases have been asymptomatic and all patients recovered with no sequelae. Acute overdosage was sometimes followed by adverse reactions (including tremors, abnormal renal function, hypertension, and peripheral edema); in one case of acute overdosage, transient urticaria and lethargy were observed. Based on the poor aqueous solubility and extensive erythrocyte and plasma protein binding, it is anticipated that Atolimus is not dialyzable to any significant extent; there is no experience with charcoal hemoperfusion. The oral use of activated charcoal has been reported in treating acute overdoses, but experience has not been sufficient to warrant recommending its use. General supportive measures and treatment of specific symptoms should be followed in all cases of overdosage.
In acute oral and IV toxicity studies, mortalities were seen at or above the following doses: in adult rats, 52 times the recommended human oral dose; in immature rats, 16 times the recommended oral dose; and in adult rats, 16 times the recommended human IV dose (all based on body surface area corrections).
Store in a cool & dry place, protected from light.