Ambrisentan Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Food Interaction and all others data.

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent autocrine and paracrine peptide. Two receptor subtypes, ETA and ETB, mediate the effects of ET-1 in the vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. The primary actions of ETA are vasoconstriction and cell proliferation, while the predominant actions of ETB are vasodilation, antiproliferation, and ET-1 clearance.

In patients with PAH, plasma ET-1 concentrations are increased as much as 10-fold and correlate with increased mean right atrial pressure and disease severity. ET-1 and ET-1 mRNA concentrations are increased as much as 9-fold in the lung tissue of patients with PAH, primarily in the endothelium of pulmonary arteries. These findings suggest that ET-1 may play a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of PAH.

Ambrisentan is a high-affinity (Ki=0.011 nM) ETA receptor antagonist with a high selectivity for the ETA versus ETB receptor ( > 4000-fold). The clinical impact of high selectivity for ETA is not known.

Ambrisentan 10 mg daily had no significant effect on the QTc interval, whereas a 40 mg daily dose of ambrisentan increased mean QTc at tmax by 5 ms with an upper 95% confidence limit of 9 ms. Significant QTc prolongation is not expected in patients taking ambrisentan without concomitant metabolic inhibitors.Plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in patients who received ambrisentan for 12 weeks were significantly decreased. Two Phase III placebo-controlled studies demonstrated a decrease in BNP plasma concentrations by 29% in the 2.5 mg group, 30% in the 5 mg group, and 45% in the 10 mg group (p < 0.001 for each dose group) and an increase by 11% in the placebo group.

Trade Name Ambrisentan
Availability Prescription only
Generic Ambrisentan
Ambrisentan Other Names Ambrisentan
Related Drugs sildenafil, tadalafil, Revatio, Adempas, Opsumit, bosentan
Weight 10mg, 5mg
Type Oral tablet
Formula C22H22N2O4
Weight Average: 378.428
Monoisotopic: 378.157957196
Protein binding

Ambrisentan is 99% plasma protein bound, primarily to albumin (96.5%) and to a lesser degree alpha1-acid glycoprotein.

Groups Approved, Investigational
Therapeutic Class Anti-hypertensive, Endothelin receptor antagonist
Manufacturer Cipla EU Ltd
Available Country United Kingdom, United States
Last Updated: September 19, 2023 at 7:00 am


Ambrisentan is used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (WHO Group 1):

  • To improve exercise ability and delay clinical worsening.
  • In combination with tadalafil to reduce the risks of disease progression and hospitalization for worsening PAH, and to improve exercise ability.

Studies establishing effectiveness included predominantly patients with WHO Functional Class II–III symptoms and etiologies of idiopathic or heritable PAH (60%) or PAH associated with connective tissue diseases (34%).

Ambrisentan is also used to associated treatment for these conditions: Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) (WHO Group 1 PH)

How Ambrisentan works

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is an endogenous peptide that acts on the endothelin type A (ETA) and endothelin type B (ETB) receptors in vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. ETA-mediated actions include vasoconstriction and cell proliferation, whereas ETB predominantly mediates vasodilation, anti-proliferation, and ET-1 clearance. In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, ET-1 levels are increased and correlate with increased right arterial pressure and severity of disease. Ambrisentan is one of several newly developed vasodilator drugs that selectively target the endothelin type A (ETA) receptor, inhibiting its action and preventing vasoconstriction. Selective inhibition of the ETA receptor prevents phospholipase C-mediated vasoconstriction and protein kinase C-mediated cell proliferation. Endothelin type B (ETB) receptor function is not significantly inhibited, and nitric oxide and prostacyclin production, cyclic GMP- and cyclic AMP-mediated vasodilation, and endothelin-1 (ET-1) clearance is preserved.


Ambrisentan dosage

Initial treatment is 5 mg once daily, and can be increased to 10 mg once daily if 5 mg is tolerated. Ambrisentan may be administered with or without food.

Side Effects

Decreases in hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit have followed administration of other endothelin receptor antagonists and were observed in clinical studies with Ambrisentan.


Ambrisentan is teratogenic and has a high risk of embryo-fetal toxicity. LD50 was found to be greater than or equal to 3160 mg/kg when studied in rats. There was no evidence of carcinogenic potential in 2 year oral daily dosing studies in rats and mice.


Fluid Retention: Peripheral edema is a known class effect of endothelin receptor antagonists, and is also a clinical consequence of PAH and worsening PAH.

Pulmonary Veno-occlusive Disease: If patients develop acute pulmonary edema during initiation of therapy with vasodilating agents such as Ambrisentan, the possibility of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease should be considered, and if con_rmed. Ambrisentan should be discontinued.

Hematological Changes: Decreases in hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit have followed administration of other endothelin receptor antagonists and were observed in clinical studies with Ambrisentan.


Multiple dose co-administration of Ambrisentan and Cyclosporine resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in Ambrisentan exposure in healthy volunteers; therefore, limit the dose of Ambrisentan to 5 mg once daily when co-administered with Cyclosporine.

Food Interaction

No interactions found.

Volume of Distribution

Ambrisentan has a low distribution into red blow cells, with a mean blood:plasma ratio of 0.57 and 0.61 in males and females, respectively.

Elimination Route

Ambrisentan is rapidly absorbed with peak plasma concentrations occuring around 2 hours after oral administration. Cmax and AUC increase proportionally with dose across the therapeutic dosing range. Absolute oral bioavailability of ambrisentan is unknown. Absorption is not affected by food.

Half Life

Ambrisentan has a terminal half-life of 15 hours. It is thought that steady state is achieved after around 4 days of repeat-dosing.


The mean oral clearance of ambrisentan was found to be 38 mL/min in healthy subjects and 19 mL/min in patients with pulmonary artery hypertension.

Elimination Route

Ambrisentan is primarily cleared by non-renal pathways. Along with its metabolites, ambrisentan is primarily found in the feces following hepatic and/or extra-hepatic metabolism. Approximately 22% of the administered dose is recovered in the urine following oral administration with 3.3% being unchanged ambrisentan.

Pregnancy & Breastfeeding use

Pregnancy Category X. It is not known whether Ambrisentan is excreted in human milk. Breastfeeding while receiving Ambrisentan is not recommended.


Ambrisentan may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Ambrisentan is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus. Pregnancy must be excluded before the initiation of treatment with Ambrisentan and prevented during treatment and for one month after stopping treatment. Ambrisentan is contraindicated in patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) including IPF patients with pulmonary hypertension (WHO Group 3).

Special Warning

Pediatric patients: Safety and effectiveness of Ambrisentan in pediatric patients have not been established.

Hepatic impaired patient: Ambrisentan is not recommended in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment.

Storage Condition

Store in a cool and dry place, below 30° C. Protect from light and moisture.

Innovators Monograph

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