Alphagan P Eye Drops

Alphagan P Eye Drops Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Food Interaction and all others data.

Brimodin contains the active ingredient brimonidine. It is a relatively selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist and approximately 1000 times more selective for the alpha-2 adrenoceptor than the alpha-1 adrenoceptor.

Topical administration of brimonidine decreases intraocular pressure (IOP) in humans. When used as directed, brimonidine ophthalmic solution reduces elevated IOP with minimal effect on cardiovascular parameters.

Alphagan P Eye Drops has a rapid onset of action, with the peak ocular hypotensive effect occurring at approximately 2 hours post-dosing. The duration of effect is 12 hours or greater.

Fluorophotometric studies in animals and humans suggest that brimonidine has a dual mechanism of action. Alphagan P Eye Drops lowers IOP by reducing aqueous humor production and increasing uveoscleral outflow.

Alphagan P Eye Drops is a highly selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist that is 1000-fold more selective for the alpha2-adrenergic receptor than the alpha1-adrenergic receptor. This characteristic gives the drug some therapeutic advantages, since it reduces the risk of systemic side effects, such as systemic hypotension, bradycardia, and sedation. In addition, there is a reduction in the risk for developing alpha-1 mediated ocular unwanted effects, such as conjunctival blanching, mydriasis, and eyelid retraction. However, despite high alpha-2 receptor specificity, brimonidine may still produce alpha-1 adrenoceptor-mediated ocular effects, such as conjunctival vasoconstriction. Alphagan P Eye Drops has a peak ocular hypotensive effect occurring at two hours post-dosing. In a randomized, double-blind clinical study, ocular administration of 0.2% brimonidine in healthy volunteers resulted in a 23% reduction of mean intraocular pressure from baseline at 3 hours following administration. In comparative studies consisting of patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, the ocular hypotensive effect of brimonidine was maintained during treatment periods of up to 1 year.

Alphagan P Eye Drops mediates vasoconstrictive effects and it was shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in ex vivo human skin model and in vivo inflammation models. In a clinial trials consisting of adults with moderate to severe facial erythema of rosacea, brimonidine was shown to improve the extent of redness at 3 hours after application, compared to placebo. It was shown to be a potent vasoconstrictor of human subcutaneous vessels with a diameter of less than 200 µm. In in vivo mouse inflammation models, brimonidine displayed anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting edema. In a randomized, double-blind study, brimonidine reduced erythema for the 12 hours of the study in a dose-dependent manner.

When adminsitered systemically, brimonidine was shown to cause cardiovascular effects by decreasing blood pressure, decreasing heart and respiratory rate, and prolonging the PR interval in the electrocardiogram. This is due to the targeting of adrenoceptors by the drug. Although the clinical significance has not been established, there is evidence that brimonidine exhibits neuroprotective activity in experimental models of cerebral ischemia and optic nerve injury. In vitro studies show that brimonidine mediated protective effects on neuronal cells from kainate acid insult and on cultured retinal ganglion cells from glutamate-induced cytotoxicity, which is a possible mediator of secondary neuronal degeneration in human glaucoma. Neuroprotective actions of brimonidine were also demonstrated in rat models of acute retinal ischemia and chronic IOP elevation. It has been proposed that brimonidine may exert neuroprotective effects on the retina and optic nerve by enhancing intrinsic retinal ganglion cell survival mechanisms and/or induction of neuronal survival factors, such as bFGF. However, further investigations are needed to conclude on these possible therapeutic benefits of the drug.

Trade Name Alphagan P Eye Drops
Availability Rx and/or OTC
Generic Brimonidine
Brimonidine Other Names Brimonidina, Brimonidine, Brimonidinum, Bromoxidine
Related Drugs epinephrine ophthalmic, latanoprost ophthalmic, phenylephrine ophthalmic, timolol ophthalmic, pilocarpine ophthalmic, Xalatan, Lumigan, Combigan, oxymetazoline ophthalmic
Formula C11H10BrN5
Weight Average: 292.135
Monoisotopic: 291.011957992
Protein binding

The protein binding of brimonidine has not been studied.

Groups Approved
Therapeutic Class Drugs for miotics and glaucoma
Available Country United States
Last Updated: September 19, 2023 at 7:00 am
Alphagan P Eye Drops
Alphagan P Eye Drops


It is effective for lowering intraocular pressure in patients with chronic open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

Alphagan P Eye Drops is also used to associated treatment for these conditions: Increased Intra Ocular Pressure (IOP), Ocular Hypertension, Facial erythema

How Alphagan P Eye Drops works

In the eye, alpha-1 adrenoceptors play a role in vasoconstriction, mydriasis, eyelid retraction, and elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) whereas alpha-2 adrenoceptors are responsible for IOP reduction via a complex Gi-coupled signaling cascade pathway. Activation of alpha-2 receptors leads to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and reduction of cyclic AMP levels. As a result, there is a decrease in norpinephrine (NE) release at the synaptic junction, NE-induced stimulation of beta-2 adrenoceptors, and production of aqueous humor by the ciliary epithelium. An elevated IOP is the most significant risk factor for developing glaucomatous optic neuropathy, which is associated with progressive visual field loss and functional disability if left untreated. Regardless of the etiology of the disease, the aim of current therapies for glaucoma is to reduce IOP, as reduction of IOP significantly reduces the risk of progression of vision loss even when IOP is already within the normal range. When administered ophthalmically, brimonidine is rapidly absorbed into the eye, acts as an agonist at ocular alpha-2 adrenoceptors and lowers IOP via a dual mechanism of action. It is proposed that initial dosing of the drug causes a reduction in aqueous humour production and chronic dosing leads to an increase in uveoscleral outflow. Alphagan P Eye Drops does not affect episcleral venous pressure. By reducing IOP, brimonidine aims to reduce the likelihood of glaucomatous visual field loss in ocular hypertension, and slow the progression of visual field defect in established open-angle glaucoma. When applied topically on skin, brimonidine reduces erythema through direct vasocontriction of small arteries and veins. As brimonidine mediates a potent peripheral vasoconstrictive activity by selectively working on the alpha-2 adrenoceptors, the use of brimonidine is thought to be efficacious for the treatment of facial erythema of rosacea, which is thought to arise from vasomotor instability and abnormal vasodilation of the superficial cutaneous vasculature of the face.


Alphagan P Eye Drops dosage

The recommended dose is 1 drop of ophthalmic solution in the affected eye(s) twice daily (doses taken approximately 12 hours apart).

If more than one topical ophthalmic medicine is to be used, other eye drops should not be used within 5 to 10 minutes of using this eye drops.

Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Side Effects

Headache; itching of eye; redness of eye or inner lining of eyelid; swelling of eyelid; tearing of eye.


LD50 and Overdose

Oral LD50 is 50 mg/kg in mice and 100 mg/kg in rats. While there is limited clinial data on brimonidine overdose in adults, some common symptoms from oral overdoses of alpha-2 adrenergic agonists include hypotension, asthenia, vomiting, lethargy, sedation, bradycardia, arrhythmias, miosis, apnoea, hypotonia, hypothermia, respiratory depression and seizure. Treatment of an oral overdose includes supportive and symptomatic therapy. Cases of brimonidine overdose have been reported in neonates, infants, and pediatric patients receiving brimonidine tartrate as part of medical treatment of congenital glaucoma or by accidental oral ingestion. In these cases, children experienced symptoms consistent with previously reported oral overdoses of alpha-2 adrenergic agonists in young children.

Nonclinical Toxicology

At oral doses of up to 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day in pregnant rats and rabbits, brimonidine was not shown to be teratogenic during gestation days 6 through 18. Findings from various in vitro and in vivo studies, including the Ames bacterial assay, CHO cell chromosomal aberration assay, and CD-1 mice studies, did not demonstrate any mutagenic or clastogenic potential of brimonidine. There were no observable adverse effects on male or female fertility when tested at oral doses of up to 1 mg/kg, which is approximately 200 times the systemic exposure following the maximum recommended ophthalmic dose of 0.5% brimonidine.

Use in special populations

Due to limited clinical data on the use of brimonidine pregnant or breastfeeding female patients, the use of brimonidine in these patients is generally not recommended and the use should be only considered after taking into account the benefit-to-risk ratio of continuing the drug therapy in these patients. In nursing mothers, the decision should be made whether to discontinue the drug or discontinue breastfeeding. As the systemic absorption and elimination of brimonidine are not significantly affected by age, the use of brimonidine is considered safe in geriatric patients. In contrast, the use of brimonidine in infants under the age of 2 and pediatric patients under the age of 18 is strongly not recommended due to the reports of serious adverse events following ophthalmic administration of brimonidine in infants between the age of 28 days and 3 months.



Alphagan P Eye Drops ophthalmic solution 0.2% should be used with caution in patients with known hypersensitivity to other alpha-adrenoceptor agonists.

Although brimonidine had minimal effect on blood pressure and heart rate of patients in clinical studies, caution should be exercised in treating patients with severe cardiovascular disease.

Alphagan P Eye Drops has not been studied in patients with hepatic or renal impairment; caution should be exercised in treating such patients.

Alphagan P Eye Drops should be used with caution in patients with depression, cerebral or coronary insufficiency.


Although specific drug interaction studies have not been conducted with brimonidine, the possibility of an additive or potentiating effect with CNS depressants (alcohol, barbiturates, opiates, sedatives, or anesthetics) should be considered.

Food Interaction

  • Avoid alcohol. Alcohol intake may potentially lead to additive CNS depressant effects.

Alphagan P Eye Drops Alcohol interaction


Topically administered alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists such as apraclonidine and brimonidine are systemically absorbed, with the potential for producing rare but clinically significant systemic effects.

Although the interaction has not been specifically studied, the possibility of an additive or potentiating effect with central nervous system (CNS) depressants such as alcohol, barbiturates, opiates, anxiolytics, sedatives, and anesthetics should be considered.

Additive hypotensive effects and orthostasis may also occur with some CNS depressants and other agents that have these effects, particularly during initial dosing and/or parenteral administration.

Patients receiving topical alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists in combination with agents that can cause CNS depression should be made aware of the potential for increased adverse effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, lightheadedness and confusion, and counseled to avoid activities requiring mental alertness until they know how these agents affect them.

Patients should also avoid rising abruptly from a sitting or recumbent position and notify their physician if they experience orthostasis or tachycardia.

Alphagan P Eye Drops Disease Interaction

Moderate: cardiovascular, depression, renal/liver

Volume of Distribution

The volume of distribution of brimonidine has not been established. In animal studies, brimonidine was shown to cross the placenta and enter into the fetal circulation to a limited extent. As its lipophilicity is relatively low, brimonidine is not reported to easily cross the blood-brain barrier.

Elimination Route

Alphagan P Eye Drops readily penetrates the cornea following ocular administration to reach pharmacologically active concentrations in the aqueous humor and ciliary body, the putative sites of its IOP-lowering activity. Following ocular administration of 0.2% brimonidine solution, the peak plasma concentrations were achieved within 1 to 4 hours.

In a clinical study of adult subjects with facial erythema of rosacea, brimonidine was cutaneously applied on facial skin in a repeated manner. While there was no drug accumulation in plasma, the highest peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) and AUC were 46 ± 62 pg/mL and 417 ± 264 pgxhr/mL, respectively.

Half Life

Following ocular administration of 0.2% brimonidine solution, the systemic half-life was approximately 3 hours.


The apparent clearance has not been studied. However, the systemic clearance of brimonidine is reported to be rapid. Approximately 87% of the total radioactive dose of brimonidine was shown to be eliminated within 120 hours following oral administration.

Elimination Route

Alphagan P Eye Drops and its metabolites are predominantly eliminated via urinary excretion, with 74% of the total dose being found in the urine.

Pregnancy & Breastfeeding use


Alphagan P Eye Drops has not been studied in pregnant women. Studies in animals have shown that brimonidine crosses the placenta, but very high doses have not been shown to cause harmful effects in the fetus.


It is not known whether brimonidine passes into human breast milk. However, it has been shown to pass into the milk of nursing animals.


This eye drops are contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to brimonidine tartrate or any component of this medication.Alphagan P Eye Drops Tartrate is also contraindicated in patients receiving monoaminase oxidase inhibitor therapy.

Acute Overdose

No data is available on overdosage of brimonidine ophthalmic solution in humans.

Storage Condition

Store in a cool, dry place & protected from light.

Keep out of reach of children.

Do not use more than 4 weeks after opening.

Innovators Monograph

You find simplified version here Alphagan P Eye Drops

Alphagan P Eye Drops contains Brimonidine see full prescribing information from innovator Alphagan P Eye Drops Monograph, Alphagan P Eye Drops MSDS, Alphagan P Eye Drops FDA label

*** Taking medicines without doctor's advice can cause long-term problems.